Cognitive learning styles

The test is scored by evaluating each answer in terms of what it reveals about the taker. Each question is relevant to one of the following cognitive learning styles. Each is not a polar opposite, but a gradual continuum.


The extraverted types learn best by talking and interacting with others. By interacting with the physical world, extraverts can process and make sense of new information. The introverted types prefer quiet reflection and privacy. Information processing occurs for introverts as they explore ideas and concepts internally.


The second continuum reflects what a person focuses their attentions on. Sensing types enjoy a learning environment in which the material is presented in a detailed and sequential manner. Sensing types often attend to what is occurring in the present, and can move to the abstract after they have established a concrete experience. Intuitive types prefer a learning atmosphere in which an emphasis is placed on meaning and associations. Insight is valued higher than careful observation, and pattern recognition occurs naturally for Intuitive types.


The third continuum ([kən'tɪnjʊəm], n. 连续统一体;闭联集) reflects a person’s decision preferences. Thinking types desire objective truth and logical principles and are natural at deductive reasoning. Feeling types place an emphasis on issues and causes that can be personalized while they consider other people’s motives.


The fourth continuum reflects how a person regards complexity. Judging types will thrive when information is organized and structured, and they will be motivated to complete assignments in order to gain closure. Perceiving types will flourish in a flexible learning environment in which they are stimulated by new and exciting ideas. Judging types like to be on time, while perceiving types may be late and/or procrastinate (延迟).

INTPs are marked by a quiet, stoic (['stəʊɪk], 斯多葛学派哲学家;禁欲主义者), modest, and aloof (冷淡的;远离的;冷漠的) exterior that masks strong creativity and enthusiasm for novel possibilities. (这句话是说 INTP 看上去十分冷淡,这掩盖了我们十足的创造力和对新奇事务的好奇心)Their weaknesses include poor organization, insensitivity to social niceties (美好;细节;拘泥细节), and a tendency to get lost in abstractions. Keirsey referred to INTPs as Architects, one of the four types belonging to the temperament he called the Rationals. INTPs are relatively rare, accounting for 1–5% of the U.S. population.

The PersonalityPage Type Portraits

There are sixteen distinct personality types in the currently most widely-accepted Personality Type model. Each type has its own characteristics which can be identified in individual personalities. We have created a profile of each personality type, which provides a guideline for understanding the similarities and differences amongst the types.

Portrait of an INTP - Introverted iNtuitive Thinking Perceiving

     (Introverted Thinking with Extraverted Intuition)
                            The Thinker

As an INTP, your primary mode of living is focused internally, where you deal with things rationally and logically. Your secondary mode is external, where you take things in primarily via your intuition.

INTPs live in the world of theoretical possibilities. They see everything in terms of how it could be improved, or what it could be turned into. They live primarily inside their own minds, having the ability to analyze difficult problems, identify patterns, and come up with logical explanations. They seek clarity in everything, and are therefore driven to build knowledge. They are the “absent-minded professors”, who highly value intelligence and the ability to apply logic to theories to find solutions. They typically are so strongly driven to turn problems into logical explanations, that they live much of their lives within their own heads, and may not place as much importance or value on the external world. Their natural drive to turn theories into concrete understanding may turn into a feeling of personal responsibility to solve theoretical problems, and help society move towards a higher understanding.

INTPs value knowledge above all else. Their minds are constantly working to generate new theories, or to prove or disprove existing theories. They approach problems and theories with enthusiasm and skepticism, ignoring existing rules and opinions and defining their own approach to the resolution. They seek patterns and logical explanations for anything that interests them. They’re usually extremely bright, and able to be objectively critical in their analysis. They love new ideas, and become very excited over abstractions and theories. They love to discuss these concepts with others. They may seem “dreamy” and distant to others, because they spend a lot of time inside their minds musing (沉思的;瞑想的) over theories. They hate to work on routine things - they would much prefer to build complex theoretical solutions, and leave the implementation of the system to others. They are intensely interested in theory, and will put forth tremendous amounts of time and energy into finding a solution to a problem with has piqued their interest.

INTPs do not like to lead or control people. They’re very tolerant and flexible in most situations, unless one of their firmly held beliefs has been violated or challenged, in which case they may take a very rigid stance. The INTP is likely to be very shy when it comes to meeting new people. On the other hand, the INTP is very self-confident and gregarious ([grɪ'geərɪəs] adj. 社交的;群居的) around people they know well, or when discussing theories which they fully understand.

The INTP has no understanding or value for decisions made on the basis of personal subjectivity or feelings. They strive constantly to achieve logical conclusions to problems, and don’t understand the importance or relevance of applying subjective emotional considerations to decisions. For this reason, INTPs are usually not in-tune with how people are feeling, and are not naturally well-equiped to meet the emotional needs of others.

The INTP may have a problem with self-aggrandizement ([,selfə'ɡrændizmənt], n. 自我扩张) and social rebellion, which will interfere with their creative potential. Since their Feeling side is their least developed trait, the INTP may have difficulty giving the warmth and support that is sometimes necessary in intimate relationships. If the INTP doesn’t realize the value of attending to other people’s feelings, he or she may become overly critical and sarcastic with others. If the INTP is not able to find a place for themself which supports the use of their strongest abilities, they may become generally negative and cynical. If the INTP has not developed their Sensing side sufficiently, they may become unaware of their environment, and exhibit weakness in performing maintenance-type tasks, such as bill-paying and dressing appropriately.

For the INTP, it is extremely important that ideas and facts are expressed correctly and succinctly ([sək'siŋktli], 简洁地). They are likely to express themselves in what they believe to be absolute truths. Sometimes, their well thought-out understanding of an idea is not easily understandable by others, but the INTP is not naturally likely to tailor the truth so as to explain it in an understandable way to others. The INTP may be prone to abandoning a project once they have figured it out, moving on to the next thing. It’s important that the INTP place importance on expressing their developed theories in understandable ways. In the end, an amazing discovery means nothing if you are the only person who understands it.

The INTP is usually very independent, unconventional, and original. They are not likely to place much value on traditional goals such as popularity and security. They usually have complex characters, and may tend to be restless and temperamental ([,temp(ə)rə'ment(ə)l], adj. 喜怒无常的;性情的). They are strongly ingenious (有独创性的;机灵的), and have unconventional thought patterns which allows them to analyze ideas in new ways. Consequently, a lot of scientific breakthroughs in the world have been made by the INTP.

The INTP is at his best when he can work on his theories independently. When given an environment which supports his creative genius and possible eccentricity ([,eksen'trɪsɪtɪ], n. 古怪;怪癖;离心率) , the INTP can accomplish truly remarkable things.

These are the pioneers of new thoughts in our society.

INTP Relationships

INTPs live rich worlds inside their minds, which are full of imagination and excitement. Consequently, they sometimes find the external world pales in comparison. This may result in a lack of motivation to form and maintain relationships. INTPs are not likely to have a very large circle of significant relationships in their lives. They’re much more likely to have a few very close relationships, which they hold in **great esteem and with great affection*8. Since the INTP’s primary focus and attention is turned inwards, aimed towards seeking clarity from abstract ideas, they are not naturally tuned into others’ emotional feelings and needs. They tend to be difficult to get to know well, and hold back parts of themselves until the other person has proven themselves “worthy” of hearing the INTP’s thoughts. Holding Knowledge and Brain Power above all else in importance, the INTP will choose to be around people who they consider to be intelligent. Once the INTP has committed themself to a relationship, they tend to be very faithful and loyal, and form affectionate attachments which are pure and straight-forward. The INTP has no interest or understanding of game-playing with regards to relationships. However, if something happens which the INTP considers irreconcilable ([ɪ'rɛkənsaɪləbl] adj. 不能和解的), they will leave the relationship and not look back.

INTP Strengths

  • They feel love and affection for those close to them which is almost childlike in its purity
  • Generally laid-back (懒散的) and easy-going, willing to defer (服从) to their mates
  • Approach things which interest them very enthusiastically
  • Richly imaginative and creative
  • Do not feel personally threatened by conflict or criticism
  • Usually are not demanding, with simple daily needs

INTP Weaknesses

  • Not naturally in tune with others’ feelings; slow to respond to emotional needs
  • Not naturally good at expressing their own feelings and emotions
  • Tend to be suspicious and distrusting of others
  • Not usually good at practical matters, such as money management, unless their work involves these concerns
  • They have difficulty leaving bad relationships
  • Tend to “blow off” conflict situations by ignoring them, or else they “blow up” in heated anger
INTPs as Lovers

To love means to open ourselves to the negative as well as the positive - to grief, sorrow, and disappointment as well as to joy, fulfillment, and an intensity of consciousness we did not know was possible before.

                                                    – Rollo May

INTPs approach their intimate relationships quite seriously - as they approach most things in life. They take their vows and commitments seriously, and are usually faithful and loyal. They are usually pretty easy to live with and be around, because they have simple daily needs and are not overly demanding of their partners in almost any respect. While the INTP’s internal life is highly theoretical and complex, their external life in comparison is usually quite simple. They like to keep the complexities of their external world to a minimum, so that they can focus their brain power on working through their theories internally. This makes them very straight-forward, honest lovers, with a love that is quite pure in its simple, uncomplicated nature.

Although they choose to keep things straight-forward in their relationships, this does not mean that the INTP is lacking in depth of feeling or passion. The INTP is very creative person, who has vivid imaginations. They can be very excitable and passionate about their love relationships. Sometimes, they have a problem reconciling the exciting visions of their internal worlds with the actuality of their external circumstances.

Sexually, the INTP usually approaches intimacy with enthusiasm and excitement. Some INTPs play down entirely the need for sexual relations in their lives, but most use their rich imaginations and child-like enthusiasm to make the most of the moment. The INTP will usually be experiencing the moment with vivid intensity inside their own minds, although this may or may not be apparent to their partner.

The largest area of potential strife (冲突;争吵;不和) in an INTP’s intimate relationship is their slowness in understanding and meeting their partner’s emotional needs. The INTP may be extremely dedicated to the relationship, and deeply in love with their partner, but may have no understanding of their mate’s emotional life, and may not express their own feelings often or well. When the INTP does express themselves, it’s likely to be in their own way at their own time, rather than in response to their partner’s needs. If this is an issue which has caused serious problems in a relationship, the INTP should work on becoming more aware of their partner’s feelings, and their partner should work on not requiring explicit positive affirmation to feel loved by the INTP.

INTPs do not like to deal with messy complications, such as interpersonal conflict, and so they may fall into the habit of ignoring conflict when it occurs. If they feel they must face the conflict, they’re likely to approach it from an analytical perspective. This may aggravate the conflict situation, if their partner simply wants to feel that they are supported and loved. Most people (and especially those with the Feeling preference) simply want to be encouraged, affirmed and supported when they are upset. The INTP should practice meeting these needs in conflict situations.

Although two well-developed individuals of any type can enjoy a healthy relationship, the INTP’s natural partner is the ENTJ, or the ESTJ. The INTP’s dominant function of Introverted Thinking is best matched with a partner whose personality is dominated by Extraverted Thinking. The INTP/ENTJ match is ideal, because these types shared Intuition as a common way of perceiving the world, but INTP/ESTJ is also a good match. How did we arrive at this?

INTPs as Parents

You are the bows from which your children as living arrows are sent forth… Let your bending in the archer’s hand be for gladness; For even as He loves the arrow that flies, so He loves also the bow that is stable.

                                               – Kahlil Gibran

INTPs love and respect Knowledge, and want to pass their jewels of thought down to their children. Their greatest goal and satisfaction as a parent is seeing their children grow into independent, rational adults.

INTP parents are likely to encourage their children to grow as individuals, rather than attempt to fit them into a preconceived mold. They will stress autonomy through the children’s growth. They’re likely to respect their children’s opinions and wishes, and allow their children to have a voice and presence in the family.

The INTP parents are likely to be pretty laid-back and flexible with their children, sometimes to the point of being relatively “hands-off” with regards to the day-to-day issues. They’re likely to count on their spouse for providing structure and schedules. Since the INTP themself does not live in an overly structured or organized manner, they’re not likely to expect or create this environment for their children. If their spouse is not someone with the “J” preference, their children may suffer from a lack of boundaries. This is something the INTP should pay special attention to. Growing children don’t know Right from Wrong, and so benefit from having their parents define these boundaries for them.

In spite of their relatively unstructured approach to parenting, INTPs take their role as parent very seriously, and are likely to put forth much effort into doing what they feel will be most effective in helping their children grow into independent, wise adults. INTPs enjoy parenting, and get a lot of fun out of their children. They’re also likely to be very proud and loyal parents.

INTPs may have a problem meeting the emotional needs of their children. Although they generally are deeply caring and supportive individuals, the INTP does not always pick up on emotional clues. A troubled child of an unaware INTP parent may have to result to drastic “attention-getting” tactics to get their parent to understand their emotional difficulties. If you find yourself in this situation, you may find that expressing some of your own emotions will do wonders for your child, yourself, and your relationship. Although it may not be possible for you to suddenly be “tuned in” on what your children are feeling, at least you can let them know that you care.

Children of INTP parents generally remember them respectfully and affectionately as loyal, fair, and tolerant parents, who care for them a great deal, although they don’t often show it.

INTPs as Friends

INTPs are likely to have friends who share their interests and pursuits. Since the INTP loves theories, ideas, and concepts, they are not likely to have much patience or understanding for people with the Sensing preference, who are not usually comfortable with abstract conceptualizing.

A diagram depicting the cognitive functions of each type. A type’s background color represents its dominant function and its text color represents its auxiliary function.

A diagram depicting the cognitive functions of each type. A type’s background color represents its dominant function and its text color represents its auxiliary function.

INTP怎样看待爱情? - 知乎

我作为一只没谈过恋爱的 intp 妹纸,表示周围的人百分之九十以上都提不起兴趣或者提起兴趣以后注意力一分散就忘了。。。。楼上的说的很好,有很多时候我就觉得如果人是被生理需求驱动去谈恋爱的话还不如自己撸,谈恋爱比这个花的功夫多太多了。简而言之,我总感觉虽然理论上 intp 的感情应该是最好搞定的,但实际上却是最没兴趣的。。。再简而言之引用我一个好朋友(她也是 intp, 我感觉如果我们能在未来有交集点的话估计就在一起了嘿嘿)的话:“我去我自己和自己还没玩够呢,谁有时间理你啊。”


INTP 机械社交能力爆棚,只要他想,没有他处不上的朋友,warmest machine 的称号不是盖的好吗。他们没有固定偏好,选长得美的、能力强的、有才华的、性格好的、人品高的不同朋友交往后,你猜他最后会留下谁?当然是可以带给他们进步的贵人们。。就是那么功利。

总感觉会有部分 INTPers 看见题目后不解地思考:我为什么需要朋友?INTP 的社交焦虑只会来源于想方设法和围绕身边的那么多奇奇怪怪的人温和地拉开距离;而不会是纠结如何多交一个朋友……重度 INTP 维持社交状态只是想营造一种自己不是怪胎的假象,自我保护而已。INTP 不对任何人有偏见,他们公平地排斥着所有类型的人类= =。INTP 与谁都能自如地聊天玩耍。同时不能、不想、不愿意与大多数人,真实地!深交。

(他们每天的 OS:好烦,好尴尬,要奔溃了,想一个人静静,想绝交……妈的再忍一忍,老子也放不下这段关系的淹没成本和机会成本)

他们把一天安排得满满当当和朋友们出去 high 完后,心里会想:完成社交任务,但一天就这样废了!信息过载,好折寿,nmb!

如何逼死 INTP:只要让他们和别人在一起,完全没有私人空间,不出三天,准奔溃,轻则发飙甩脸子,重则做出大逆不道危害社会的事。

他们无比能够正视“朋友圈是随着时间流动而改变的”,他们表达友爱的方式是:“我希望这段我们能够亲密无间的日子结束得慢一点” 而不是“我们要做一辈子朋友”



warmest social machine,给别人以让对方想和你深交的热情和温暖,三天不见后你却忘了对方的脸。

精于识别他人的反社会情节;因为 intp 自己也有


refs and see also