# Pandoc

## The universal markup converter

Pandoc is a Haskell library for converting from one markup format to another, and a command-line tool that uses this library. It can read Markdown, CommonMark, PHP Markdown Extra, GitHub-Flavored Markdown, MultiMarkdown, and (subsets of) Textile, reStructuredText, HTML, LaTeX, MediaWiki markup, TWiki markup, Haddock markup, OPML, Emacs Org mode, DocBook, txt2tags, EPUB, ODT and Word docx; and it can write plain text, Markdown, CommonMark, PHP Markdown Extra, GitHub-Flavored Markdown, MultiMarkdown, reStructuredText, XHTML, HTML5, LaTeX (including beamer slide shows), ConTeXt, RTF, OPML, DocBook, OpenDocument, ODT, Word docx, GNU Texinfo, MediaWiki markup, DokuWiki markup, ZimWiki markup, Haddock markup, EPUB (v2 or v3), FictionBook2, Textile, groff man pages, Emacs Org mode, AsciiDoc, InDesign ICML, TEI Simple, and Slidy, Slideous, DZSlides, reveal.js or S5 HTML slide shows. It can also produce PDF output on systems where LaTeX, ConTeXt, or wkhtmltopdf is installed.

Pandoc’s enhanced version of Markdown includes syntax for footnotes, tables, flexible ordered lists, definition lists, fenced code blocks, superscripts and subscripts, strikeout, metadata blocks, automatic tables of contents, embedded LaTeX math, citations, and Markdown inside HTML block elements. (These enhancements, described further under Pandoc’s Markdown, can be disabled using the markdown_strict input or output format.)

In contrast to most existing tools for converting Markdown to HTML, which use regex substitutions, pandoc has a modular design: it consists of a set of readers, which parse text in a given format and produce a native representation of the document, and a set of writers, which convert this native representation into a target format. Thus, adding an input or output format requires only adding a reader or writer.

Because pandoc’s intermediate representation of a document is less expressive than many of the formats it converts between, one should not expect perfect conversions between every format and every other. Pandoc attempts to preserve the structural elements of a document, but not formatting details such as margin size. And some document elements, such as complex tables, may not fit into pandoc’s simple document model. While conversions from pandoc’s Markdown to all formats aspire to be perfect, conversions from formats more expressive than pandoc’s Markdown can be expected to be lossy.

## Installing

Here’s how to install pandoc.

## Documentation

Pandoc’s website contains a full User’s Guide. It is also available here as pandoc-flavored Markdown. The website also contains some examples of the use of pandoc and a limited online demo.

## Contributing

Pull requests, bug reports, and feature requests are welcome. Please make sure to read the contributor guidelines before opening a new issue.

© 2006-2016 John MacFarlane (jgm@berkeley.edu). Released under the GPL, version 2 or greater. This software carries no warranty of any kind. (See COPYRIGHT for full copyright and warranty notices.)

https://raw.githubusercontent.com/jgm/pandoc/master/MANUAL.txt

# Synopsis

pandoc [options] [input-file]…

# Description

Pandoc is a Haskell library for converting from one markup format to another, and a command-line tool that uses this library. It can read Markdown, CommonMark, PHP Markdown Extra, GitHub-Flavored Markdown, MultiMarkdown, and (subsets of) Textile, reStructuredText, HTML, LaTeX, MediaWiki markup, TWiki markup, Haddock markup, OPML, Emacs Org mode, DocBook, txt2tags, EPUB, ODT and Word docx; and it can write plain text, Markdown, CommonMark, PHP Markdown Extra, GitHub-Flavored Markdown, MultiMarkdown, reStructuredText, XHTML, HTML5, LaTeX (including beamer slide shows), ConTeXt, RTF, OPML, DocBook, OpenDocument, ODT, Word docx, GNU Texinfo, MediaWiki markup, DokuWiki markup, ZimWiki markup, Haddock markup, EPUB (v2 or v3), FictionBook2, Textile, groff man pages, Emacs Org mode, AsciiDoc, InDesign ICML, TEI Simple, and Slidy, Slideous, DZSlides, reveal.js or S5 HTML slide shows. It can also produce PDF output on systems where LaTeX, ConTeXt, or wkhtmltopdf is installed.

Pandoc’s enhanced version of Markdown includes syntax for footnotes, tables, flexible ordered lists, definition lists, fenced code blocks, superscripts and subscripts, strikeout, metadata blocks, automatic tables of contents, embedded LaTeX math, citations, and Markdown inside HTML block elements. (These enhancements, described further under Pandoc’s Markdown, can be disabled using the markdown_strict input or output format.)

In contrast to most existing tools for converting Markdown to HTML, which use regex substitutions, pandoc has a modular design: it consists of a set of readers, which parse text in a given format and produce a native representation of the document, and a set of writers, which convert this native representation into a target format. Thus, adding an input or output format requires only adding a reader or writer.

Because pandoc’s intermediate representation of a document is less expressive than many of the formats it converts between, one should not expect perfect conversions between every format and every other. Pandoc attempts to preserve the structural elements of a document, but not formatting details such as margin size. And some document elements, such as complex tables, may not fit into pandoc’s simple document model. While conversions from pandoc’s Markdown to all formats aspire to be perfect, conversions from formats more expressive than pandoc’s Markdown can be expected to be lossy.

## Using pandoc

If no input-file is specified, input is read from stdin. Otherwise, the input-files are concatenated (with a blank line between each) and used as input. Output goes to stdout by default (though output to stdout is disabled for the odt, docx, epub, and epub3 output formats). For output to a file, use the -o option:

pandoc -o output.html input.txt

By default, pandoc produces a document fragment, not a standalone document with a proper header and footer. To produce a standalone document, use the -s or --standalone flag:

pandoc -s -o output.html input.txt

For more information on how standalone documents are produced, see Templates, below.

Instead of a file, an absolute URI may be given. In this case pandoc will fetch the content using HTTP:

pandoc -f html -t markdown http://www.fsf.org

If multiple input files are given, pandoc will concatenate them all (with blank lines between them) before parsing. This feature is disabled for binary input formats such as EPUB, odt, and docx.

The format of the input and output can be specified explicitly using command-line options. The input format can be specified using the -r/--read or -f/--from options, the output format using the -w/--write or -t/--to options. Thus, to convert hello.txt from Markdown to LaTeX, you could type:

pandoc -f markdown -t latex hello.txt

To convert hello.html from HTML to Markdown:

pandoc -f html -t markdown hello.html

Supported output formats are listed below under the -t/--to option. Supported input formats are listed below under the -f/--from option. Note that the rst, textile, latex, and html readers are not complete; there are some constructs that they do not parse.

If the input or output format is not specified explicitly, pandoc will attempt to guess it from the extensions of the input and output filenames. Thus, for example,

pandoc -o hello.tex hello.txt

will convert hello.txt from Markdown to LaTeX. If no output file is specified (so that output goes to stdout), or if the output file’s extension is unknown, the output format will default to HTML. If no input file is specified (so that input comes from stdin), or if the input files’ extensions are unknown, the input format will be assumed to be Markdown unless explicitly specified.

Pandoc uses the UTF-8 character encoding for both input and output. If your local character encoding is not UTF-8, you should pipe input and output through iconv:

iconv -t utf-8 input.txt | pandoc | iconv -f utf-8

Note that in some output formats (such as HTML, LaTeX, ConTeXt, RTF, OPML, DocBook, and Texinfo), information about the character encoding is included in the document header, which will only be included if you use the -s/--standalone option.

## Creating a PDF

To produce a PDF, specify an output file with a .pdf extension. By default, pandoc will use LaTeX to convert it to PDF:

pandoc test.txt -o test.pdf

Production of a PDF requires that a LaTeX engine be installed (see --latex-engine, below), and assumes that the following LaTeX packages are available: amsfonts, amsmath, lm, ifxetex, ifluatex, eurosym, listings (if the --listings option is used), fancyvrb, longtable, booktabs, graphicx and grffile (if the document contains images), hyperref, ulem, geometry (with the geometry variable set), setspace (with linestretch), and babel (with lang). The use of xelatex or lualatex as the LaTeX engine requires fontspec; xelatex uses mathspec, polyglossia (with lang), xecjk, and bidi (with the dir variable set). The upquote and microtype packages are used if available, and csquotes will be used for smart punctuation if added to the template or included in any header file. The natbib, biblatex, bibtex, and biber packages can optionally be used for citation rendering. These are included with all recent versions of TeX Live.

Alternatively, pandoc can use ConTeXt or wkhtmltopdf to create a PDF. To do this, specify an output file with a .pdf extension, as before, but add -t context or -t html5 to the command line.

PDF output can be controlled using variables for LaTeX (if LaTeX is used) and variables for ConTeXt (if ConTeXt is used). If wkhtmltopdf is used, then the variables margin-left, margin-right, margin-top, margin-bottom, and papersize will affect the output, as will --css.

# Options

## General options

-f FORMAT, -r FORMAT, --from=FORMAT, --read=FORMAT

Specify input format. FORMAT can be native (native Haskell), json (JSON version of native AST), markdown (pandoc’s extended Markdown), markdown_strict (original unextended Markdown), markdown_phpextra (PHP Markdown Extra), markdown_github (GitHub-Flavored Markdown), markdown_mmd (MultiMarkdown), commonmark (CommonMark Markdown), textile (Textile), rst (reStructuredText), html (HTML), docbook (DocBook), t2t (txt2tags), docx (docx), odt (ODT), epub (EPUB), opml (OPML), org (Emacs Org mode), mediawiki (MediaWiki markup), twiki (TWiki markup), haddock (Haddock markup), or latex (LaTeX). If +lhs is appended to markdown, rst, latex, or html, the input will be treated as literate Haskell source: see Literate Haskell support, below. Markdown syntax extensions can be individually enabled or disabled by appending +EXTENSION or -EXTENSION to the format name. So, for example, markdown_strict+footnotes+definition_lists is strict Markdown with footnotes and definition lists enabled, and markdown-pipe_tables+hard_line_breaks is pandoc’s Markdown without pipe tables and with hard line breaks. See Pandoc’s Markdown, below, for a list of extensions and their names. See --list-input-formats and --list-extensions, below.

-t FORMAT, -w FORMAT, --to=FORMAT, --write=FORMAT

Specify output format. FORMAT can be native (native Haskell), json (JSON version of native AST), plain (plain text), markdown (pandoc’s extended Markdown), markdown_strict (original unextended Markdown), markdown_phpextra (PHP Markdown Extra), markdown_github (GitHub-Flavored Markdown), markdown_mmd (MultiMarkdown), commonmark (CommonMark Markdown), rst (reStructuredText), html (XHTML), html5 (HTML5), latex (LaTeX), beamer (LaTeX beamer slide show), context (ConTeXt), man (groff man), mediawiki (MediaWiki markup), dokuwiki (DokuWiki markup), zimwiki (ZimWiki markup), textile (Textile), org (Emacs Org mode), texinfo (GNU Texinfo), opml (OPML), docbook (DocBook 4), docbook5 (DocBook 5), opendocument (OpenDocument), odt (OpenOffice text document), docx (Word docx), haddock (Haddock markup), rtf (rich text format), epub (EPUB v2 book), epub3 (EPUB v3), fb2 (FictionBook2 e-book), asciidoc (AsciiDoc), icml (InDesign ICML), tei (TEI Simple), slidy (Slidy HTML and javascript slide show), slideous (Slideous HTML and javascript slide show), dzslides (DZSlides HTML5 + javascript slide show), revealjs (reveal.js HTML5 + javascript slide show), s5 (S5 HTML and javascript slide show), or the path of a custom lua writer (see Custom writers, below). Note that odt, epub, and epub3 output will not be directed to stdout; an output filename must be specified using the -o/--output option. If +lhs is appended to markdown, rst, latex, beamer, html, or html5, the output will be rendered as literate Haskell source: see Literate Haskell support, below. Markdown syntax extensions can be individually enabled or disabled by appending +EXTENSION or -EXTENSION to the format name, as described above under -f. See --list-output-formats and --list-extensions, below.

-o FILE, --output=FILE

Write output to FILE instead of stdout. If FILE is -, output will go to stdout. (Exception: if the output format is odt, docx, epub, or epub3, output to stdout is disabled.)

--data-dir=DIRECTORY

Specify the user data directory to search for pandoc data files. If this option is not specified, the default user data directory will be used. This is, in Unix:

$HOME/.pandoc in Windows XP: C:\Documents And Settings\USERNAME\Application Data\pandoc and in Windows Vista or later: C:\Users\USERNAME\AppData\Roaming\pandoc You can find the default user data directory on your system by looking at the output of pandoc --version. A reference.odt, reference.docx, epub.css, templates, slidy, slideous, or s5 directory placed in this directory will override pandoc’s normal defaults. --bash-completion Generate a bash completion script. To enable bash completion with pandoc, add this to your .bashrc: eval "$(pandoc --bash-completion)"
--verbose

Give verbose debugging output. Currently this only has an effect with PDF output.

--list-input-formats

List supported input formats, one per line.

--list-output-formats

List supported output formats, one per line.

--list-extensions

List supported Markdown extensions, one per line, followed by a + or - indicating whether it is enabled by default in pandoc’s Markdown.

--list-highlight-languages

List supported languages for syntax highlighting, one per line.

--list-highlight-styles

List supported styles for syntax highlighting, one per line. See --highlight-style.

-v, --version

Print version.

-h, --help

Show usage message.

-R, --parse-raw

Parse untranslatable HTML codes and LaTeX environments as raw HTML or LaTeX, instead of ignoring them. Affects only HTML and LaTeX input. Raw HTML can be printed in Markdown, reStructuredText, Emacs Org mode, HTML, Slidy, Slideous, DZSlides, reveal.js, and S5 output; raw LaTeX can be printed in Markdown, reStructuredText, Emacs Org mode, LaTeX, and ConTeXt output. The default is for the readers to omit untranslatable HTML codes and LaTeX environments. (The LaTeX reader does pass through untranslatable LaTeX commands, even if -R is not specified.)

-S, --smart

Produce typographically correct output, converting straight quotes to curly quotes, --- to em-dashes, -- to en-dashes, and ... to ellipses. Nonbreaking spaces are inserted after certain abbreviations, such as “Mr.” (Note: This option is selected automatically when the output format is latex or context, unless --no-tex-ligatures is used. It has no effect for latex input.)

--old-dashes

Selects the pandoc <= 1.8.2.1 behavior for parsing smart dashes: - before a numeral is an en-dash, and -- is an em-dash. This option is selected automatically for textile input.

Specify the base level for headers (defaults to 1).

--indented-code-classes=CLASSES

Specify classes to use for indented code blocks–for example, perl,numberLines or haskell. Multiple classes may be separated by spaces or commas.

--default-image-extension=EXTENSION

Specify a default extension to use when image paths/URLs have no extension. This allows you to use the same source for formats that require different kinds of images. Currently this option only affects the Markdown and LaTeX readers.

--file-scope

Parse each file individually before combining for multifile documents. This will allow footnotes in different files with the same identifiers to work as expected. If this option is set, footnotes and links will not work across files. Reading binary files (docx, odt, epub) implies --file-scope.

--filter=PROGRAM

Specify an executable to be used as a filter transforming the pandoc AST after the input is parsed and before the output is written. The executable should read JSON from stdin and write JSON to stdout. The JSON must be formatted like pandoc’s own JSON input and output. The name of the output format will be passed to the filter as the first argument. Hence,

pandoc --filter ./caps.py -t latex

is equivalent to

pandoc -t json | ./caps.py latex | pandoc -f json -t latex

The latter form may be useful for debugging filters.

Filters may be written in any language. Text.Pandoc.JSON exports toJSONFilter to facilitate writing filters in Haskell. Those who would prefer to write filters in python can use the module pandocfilters, installable from PyPI. There are also pandoc filter libraries in PHP, perl, and javascript/node.js.

In order of preference, pandoc will look for filters in

1. a specified full or relative path (executable or non-executable)

2. $DATADIR/filters (executable or non-executable) 3.$PATH (executable only)

Set the metadata field KEY to the value VAL. A value specified on the command line overrides a value specified in the document. Values will be parsed as YAML boolean or string values. If no value is specified, the value will be treated as Boolean true. Like --variable, --metadata causes template variables to be set. But unlike --variable, --metadata affects the metadata of the underlying document (which is accessible from filters and may be printed in some output formats).

--normalize

Normalize the document after reading: merge adjacent Str or Emph elements, for example, and remove repeated Spaces.

-p, --preserve-tabs

Preserve tabs instead of converting them to spaces (the default). Note that this will only affect tabs in literal code spans and code blocks; tabs in regular text will be treated as spaces.

--tab-stop=NUMBER

Specify the number of spaces per tab (default is 4).

--track-changes=accept|reject|all

Specifies what to do with insertions, deletions, and comments produced by the MS Word “Track Changes” feature. accept (the default), inserts all insertions, and ignores all deletions. reject inserts all deletions and ignores insertions. Both accept and reject ignore comments. all puts in insertions, deletions, and comments, wrapped in spans with insertion, deletion, comment-start, and comment-end classes, respectively. The author and time of change is included. all is useful for scripting: only accepting changes from a certain reviewer, say, or before a certain date. This option only affects the docx reader.

--extract-media=DIR

Extract images and other media contained in a docx or epub container to the path DIR, creating it if necessary, and adjust the images references in the document so they point to the extracted files. This option only affects the docx and epub readers.

## General writer options

-s, --standalone

Produce output with an appropriate header and footer (e.g. a standalone HTML, LaTeX, TEI, or RTF file, not a fragment). This option is set automatically for pdf, epub, epub3, fb2, docx, and odt output.

--template=FILE

Use FILE as a custom template for the generated document. Implies --standalone. See Templates, below, for a description of template syntax. If no extension is specified, an extension corresponding to the writer will be added, so that --template=special looks for special.html for HTML output. If the template is not found, pandoc will search for it in the templates subdirectory of the user data directory (see --data-dir). If this option is not used, a default template appropriate for the output format will be used (see -D/--print-default-template).

-V KEY[=VAL], --variable=KEY[:VAL]

Set the template variable KEY to the value VAL when rendering the document in standalone mode. This is generally only useful when the --template option is used to specify a custom template, since pandoc automatically sets the variables used in the default templates. If no VAL is specified, the key will be given the value true.

-D FORMAT, --print-default-template=FORMAT

Print the system default template for an output FORMAT. (See -t for a list of possible FORMATs.) Templates in the user data directory are ignored.

--print-default-data-file=FILE

Print a system default data file. Files in the user data directory are ignored.

--dpi=NUMBER
Specify the dpi (dots per inch) value for conversion from pixels to inch/centimeters and vice versa. The default is 96dpi. Technically, the correct term would be ppi (pixels per inch).
--wrap=auto|none|preserve

Determine how text is wrapped in the output (the source code, not the rendered version). With auto (the default), pandoc will attempt to wrap lines to the column width specified by --columns (default 80). With none, pandoc will not wrap lines at all. With preserve, pandoc will attempt to preserve the wrapping from the source document (that is, where there are nonsemantic newlines in the source, there will be nonsemantic newlines in the output as well).

--no-wrap

Deprecated synonym for --wrap=none.

--columns=NUMBER

Specify length of lines in characters. This affects text wrapping in the generated source code (see --wrap). It also affects calculation of column widths for plain text tables (see Tables below).

--toc, --table-of-contents

Include an automatically generated table of contents (or, in the case of latex, context, docx, and rst, an instruction to create one) in the output document. This option has no effect on man, docbook, docbook5, slidy, slideous, s5, or odt output.

--toc-depth=NUMBER

Specify the number of section levels to include in the table of contents. The default is 3 (which means that level 1, 2, and 3 headers will be listed in the contents).

--no-highlight

Disables syntax highlighting for code blocks and inlines, even when a language attribute is given.

--highlight-style=STYLE

Specifies the coloring style to be used in highlighted source code. Options are pygments (the default), kate, monochrome, espresso, zenburn, haddock, and tango. For more information on syntax highlighting in pandoc, see Syntax highlighting, below. See also --list-highlight-styles.

Include contents of FILE, verbatim, at the end of the header. This can be used, for example, to include special CSS or javascript in HTML documents. This option can be used repeatedly to include multiple files in the header. They will be included in the order specified. Implies --standalone.

-B FILE, --include-before-body=FILE

Include contents of FILE, verbatim, at the beginning of the document body (e.g. after the <body> tag in HTML, or the \begin{document} command in LaTeX). This can be used to include navigation bars or banners in HTML documents. This option can be used repeatedly to include multiple files. They will be included in the order specified. Implies --standalone.

-A FILE, --include-after-body=FILE

Include contents of FILE, verbatim, at the end of the document body (before the </body> tag in HTML, or the \end{document} command in LaTeX). This option can be used repeatedly to include multiple files. They will be included in the order specified. Implies --standalone.

## Options affecting specific writers

--self-contained

Produce a standalone HTML file with no external dependencies, using data: URIs to incorporate the contents of linked scripts, stylesheets, images, and videos. The resulting file should be “self-contained,” in the sense that it needs no external files and no net access to be displayed properly by a browser. This option works only with HTML output formats, including html, html5, html+lhs, html5+lhs, s5, slidy, slideous, dzslides, and revealjs. Scripts, images, and stylesheets at absolute URLs will be downloaded; those at relative URLs will be sought relative to the working directory (if the first source file is local) or relative to the base URL (if the first source file is remote). Limitation: resources that are loaded dynamically through JavaScript cannot be incorporated; as a result, --self-contained does not work with --mathjax, and some advanced features (e.g. zoom or speaker notes) may not work in an offline “self-contained” reveal.js slide show.

--html-q-tags

Use <q> tags for quotes in HTML.

--ascii

Use only ascii characters in output. Currently supported only for HTML output (which uses numerical entities instead of UTF-8 when this option is selected).

Use reference-style links, rather than inline links, in writing Markdown or reStructuredText. By default inline links are used. The placement of link references is affected by the --reference-location option.

--reference-location = block|section|document

Specify whether footnotes (and references, if reference-links is set) are placed at the end of the current (top-level) block, the current section, or the document. The default is document. Currently only affects the markdown writer.

Use ATX-style headers in Markdown and asciidoc output. The default is to use setext-style headers for levels 1-2, and then ATX headers.

--chapters

Deprecated synonym for --top-level-division=chapter.

--top-level-division=[default|section|chapter|part]

Treat top-level headers as the given division type in LaTeX, ConTeXt, DocBook, and TEI output. The hierarchy order is part, chapter, then section; all headers are shifted such that the top-level header becomes the specified type. The default behavior is to determine the best division type via heuristics: unless other conditions apply, section is chosen. When the LaTeX document class is set to report, book, or memoir (unless the article option is specified), chapter is implied as the setting for this option. If beamer is the output format, specifying either chapter or part will cause top-level headers to become \part{..}, while second-level headers remain as their default type.

-N, --number-sections

Number section headings in LaTeX, ConTeXt, HTML, or EPUB output. By default, sections are not numbered. Sections with class unnumbered will never be numbered, even if --number-sections is specified.

--number-offset=NUMBER[,NUMBER,]

Offset for section headings in HTML output (ignored in other output formats). The first number is added to the section number for top-level headers, the second for second-level headers, and so on. So, for example, if you want the first top-level header in your document to be numbered “6”, specify --number-offset=5. If your document starts with a level-2 header which you want to be numbered “1.5”, specify --number-offset=1,4. Offsets are 0 by default. Implies --number-sections.

--no-tex-ligatures

Do not use the TeX ligatures for quotation marks, apostrophes, and dashes (...', ..'', --, ---) when writing or reading LaTeX or ConTeXt. In reading LaTeX, parse the characters , ', and - literally, rather than parsing ligatures for quotation marks and dashes. In writing LaTeX or ConTeXt, print unicode quotation mark and dash characters literally, rather than converting them to the standard ASCII TeX ligatures. Note: normally --smart is selected automatically for LaTeX and ConTeXt output, but it must be specified explicitly if --no-tex-ligatures is selected. If you use literal curly quotes, dashes, and ellipses in your source, then you may want to use --no-tex-ligatures without --smart.

--listings

Use the listings package for LaTeX code blocks

-i, --incremental

Make list items in slide shows display incrementally (one by one). The default is for lists to be displayed all at once.

--slide-level=NUMBER

Specifies that headers with the specified level create slides (for beamer, s5, slidy, slideous, dzslides). Headers above this level in the hierarchy are used to divide the slide show into sections; headers below this level create subheads within a slide. The default is to set the slide level based on the contents of the document; see Structuring the slide show.

--section-divs

Wrap sections in <div> tags (or <section> tags in HTML5), and attach identifiers to the enclosing <div> (or <section>) rather than the header itself. See Header identifiers, below.

--email-obfuscation=none|javascript|references

Specify a method for obfuscating mailto: links in HTML documents. none leaves mailto: links as they are. javascript obfuscates them using javascript. references obfuscates them by printing their letters as decimal or hexadecimal character references. The default is none.

--id-prefix=STRING

Specify a prefix to be added to all automatically generated identifiers in HTML and DocBook output, and to footnote numbers in Markdown output. This is useful for preventing duplicate identifiers when generating fragments to be included in other pages.

-T STRING, --title-prefix=STRING

Specify STRING as a prefix at the beginning of the title that appears in the HTML header (but not in the title as it appears at the beginning of the HTML body). Implies --standalone.

-c URL, --css=URL

Link to a CSS style sheet. This option can be used repeatedly to include multiple files. They will be included in the order specified.

--reference-odt=FILE

Use the specified file as a style reference in producing an ODT. For best results, the reference ODT should be a modified version of an ODT produced using pandoc. The contents of the reference ODT are ignored, but its stylesheets are used in the new ODT. If no reference ODT is specified on the command line, pandoc will look for a file reference.odt in the user data directory (see --data-dir). If this is not found either, sensible defaults will be used.

--reference-docx=FILE

--epub-stylesheet=FILE

Use the specified CSS file to style the EPUB. If no stylesheet is specified, pandoc will look for a file epub.css in the user data directory (see --data-dir). If it is not found there, sensible defaults will be used.

--epub-cover-image=FILE

Use the specified image as the EPUB cover. It is recommended that the image be less than 1000px in width and height. Note that in a Markdown source document you can also specify cover-image in a YAML metadata block (see EPUB Metadata, below).

Look in the specified XML file for metadata for the EPUB. The file should contain a series of Dublin Core elements. For example:

<dc:rights>Creative Commons</dc:rights>
<dc:language>es-AR</dc:language>

By default, pandoc will include the following metadata elements: <dc:title> (from the document title), <dc:creator> (from the document authors), <dc:date> (from the document date, which should be in ISO 8601 format), <dc:language> (from the lang variable, or, if is not set, the locale), and <dc:identifier id="BookId"> (a randomly generated UUID). Any of these may be overridden by elements in the metadata file.

Note: if the source document is Markdown, a YAML metadata block in the document can be used instead. See below under EPUB Metadata.

--epub-embed-font=FILE

Embed the specified font in the EPUB. This option can be repeated to embed multiple fonts. Wildcards can also be used: for example, DejaVuSans-*.ttf. However, if you use wildcards on the command line, be sure to escape them or put the whole filename in single quotes, to prevent them from being interpreted by the shell. To use the embedded fonts, you will need to add declarations like the following to your CSS (see --epub-stylesheet):

@font-face {
font-family: DejaVuSans;
font-style: normal;
font-weight: normal;
src:url("DejaVuSans-Regular.ttf");
}
@font-face {
font-family: DejaVuSans;
font-style: normal;
font-weight: bold;
src:url("DejaVuSans-Bold.ttf");
}
@font-face {
font-family: DejaVuSans;
font-style: italic;
font-weight: normal;
src:url("DejaVuSans-Oblique.ttf");
}
@font-face {
font-family: DejaVuSans;
font-style: italic;
font-weight: bold;
src:url("DejaVuSans-BoldOblique.ttf");
}
body { font-family: "DejaVuSans"; }
--epub-chapter-level=NUMBER

Specify the header level at which to split the EPUB into separate “chapter” files. The default is to split into chapters at level 1 headers. This option only affects the internal composition of the EPUB, not the way chapters and sections are displayed to users. Some readers may be slow if the chapter files are too large, so for large documents with few level 1 headers, one might want to use a chapter level of 2 or 3.

--latex-engine=pdflatex|lualatex|xelatex

Use the specified LaTeX engine when producing PDF output. The default is pdflatex. If the engine is not in your PATH, the full path of the engine may be specified here.

--latex-engine-opt=STRING

Use the given string as a command-line argument to the latex-engine. If used multiple times, the arguments are provided with spaces between them. Note that no check for duplicate options is done.

## Citation rendering

--bibliography=FILE

Set the bibliography field in the document’s metadata to FILE, overriding any value set in the metadata, and process citations using pandoc-citeproc. (This is equivalent to --metadata bibliography=FILE --filter pandoc-citeproc.) If --natbib or --biblatex is also supplied, pandoc-citeproc is not used, making this equivalent to --metadata bibliography=FILE. If you supply this argument multiple times, each FILE will be added to bibliography.

--csl=FILE

Set the csl field in the document’s metadata to FILE, overriding any value set in the metadata. (This is equivalent to --metadata csl=FILE.) This option is only relevant with pandoc-citeproc.

--citation-abbreviations=FILE

Set the citation-abbreviations field in the document’s metadata to FILE, overriding any value set in the metadata. (This is equivalent to --metadata citation-abbreviations=FILE.) This option is only relevant with pandoc-citeproc.

--natbib

Use natbib for citations in LaTeX output. This option is not for use with the pandoc-citeproc filter or with PDF output. It is intended for use in producing a LaTeX file that can be processed with bibtex.

--biblatex

Use biblatex for citations in LaTeX output. This option is not for use with the pandoc-citeproc filter or with PDF output. It is intended for use in producing a LaTeX file that can be processed with bibtex or biber.

## Math rendering in HTML

-m [URL], --latexmathml[=URL]

Use the LaTeXMathML script to display embedded TeX math in HTML output. To insert a link to a local copy of the LaTeXMathML.js script, provide a URL. If no URL is provided, the contents of the script will be inserted directly into the HTML header, preserving portability at the price of efficiency. If you plan to use math on several pages, it is much better to link to a copy of the script, so it can be cached.

--mathml[=URL]

Convert TeX math to MathML (in docbook, docbook5, html and html5). In standalone html output, a small javascript (or a link to such a script if a URL is supplied) will be inserted that allows the MathML to be viewed on some browsers.

--jsmath[=URL]

Use jsMath to display embedded TeX math in HTML output. The URL should point to the jsMath load script (e.g. jsMath/easy/load.js); if provided, it will be linked to in the header of standalone HTML documents. If a URL is not provided, no link to the jsMath load script will be inserted; it is then up to the author to provide such a link in the HTML template.

--mathjax[=URL]

Use MathJax to display embedded TeX math in HTML output. The URL should point to the MathJax.js load script. If a URL is not provided, a link to the MathJax CDN will be inserted.

Enclose TeX math in <eq> tags in HTML output. These can then be processed by gladTeX to produce links to images of the typeset formulas.

--mimetex[=URL]

Render TeX math using the mimeTeX CGI script. If URL is not specified, it is assumed that the script is at /cgi-bin/mimetex.cgi.

--webtex[=URL]

Render TeX formulas using an external script that converts TeX formulas to images. The formula will be concatenated with the URL provided. If URL is not specified, the CodeCogs will be used. Note: the --webtex option will affect Markdown output as well as HTML, which is useful if you’re targeting a version of Markdown without native math support.

--katex[=URL]

Use KaTeX to display embedded TeX math in HTML output. The URL should point to the katex.js load script. If a URL is not provided, a link to the KaTeX CDN will be inserted. Note: KaTeX seems to work best with html5 output.

--katex-stylesheet=URL

The URL should point to the katex.css stylesheet. If this option is not specified, a link to the KaTeX CDN will be inserted. Note that this option does not imply --katex.

## Options for wrapper scripts

--dump-args

Print information about command-line arguments to stdout, then exit. This option is intended primarily for use in wrapper scripts. The first line of output contains the name of the output file specified with the -o option, or - (for stdout) if no output file was specified. The remaining lines contain the command-line arguments, one per line, in the order they appear. These do not include regular pandoc options and their arguments, but do include any options appearing after a -- separator at the end of the line.

--ignore-args

Ignore command-line arguments (for use in wrapper scripts). Regular pandoc options are not ignored. Thus, for example,

pandoc --ignore-args -o foo.html -s foo.txt -- -e latin1

is equivalent to

pandoc -o foo.html -s

# Templates

When the -s/--standalone option is used, pandoc uses a template to add header and footer material that is needed for a self-standing document. To see the default template that is used, just type

pandoc -D *FORMAT*

where FORMAT is the name of the output format. A custom template can be specified using the --template option. You can also override the system default templates for a given output format FORMAT by putting a file templates/default.*FORMAT* in the user data directory (see --data-dir, above). Exceptions:

• For odt output, customize the default.opendocument template.
• For pdf output, customize the default.latex template (or the default.beamer template, if you use -t beamer, or the default.context template, if you use -t context).
• docx has no template (however, you can use --reference-docx to customize the output).

Templates contain variables, which allow for the inclusion of arbitrary information at any point in the file. Variables may be set within the document using YAML metadata blocks. They may also be set at the command line using the -V/--variable option: variables set in this way override metadata fields with the same name.

## Variables set by pandoc

Some variables are set automatically by pandoc. These vary somewhat depending on the output format, but include metadata fields as well as the following:

title, author, date

allow identification of basic aspects of the document. Included in PDF metadata through LaTeX and ConTeXt. These can be set through a pandoc title block, which allows for multiple authors, or through a YAML metadata block:

---
author:
- Aristotle
- Peter Abelard
...
subtitle
document subtitle, included in HTML, EPUB, LaTeX, ConTeXt, and Word docx; renders in LaTeX only when using a document class that supports \subtitle, such as beamer or the KOMA-Script series (scrartcl, scrreprt, scrbook).1
institute
author affiliations (in LaTeX and Beamer only). Can be a list, when there are multiple authors.
abstract
document summary, included in LaTeX, ConTeXt, AsciiDoc, and Word docx
keywords
list of keywords to be included in HTML, PDF, and AsciiDoc metadata; may be repeated as for author, above
contents specified by -H/--include-in-header (may have multiple values)
toc
non-null value if --toc/--table-of-contents was specified
toc-title
include-before
contents specified by -B/--include-before-body (may have multiple values)
include-after
contents specified by -A/--include-after-body (may have multiple values)
body
body of document
meta-json
JSON representation of all of the document’s metadata

## Language variables

lang

identifies the main language of the document, using a code according to BCP 47 (e.g. en or en-GB). For some output formats, pandoc will convert it to an appropriate format stored in the additional variables babel-lang, polyglossia-lang (LaTeX) and context-lang (ConTeXt).

Native pandoc spans and divs with the lang attribute (value in BCP 47) can be used to switch the language in that range.

otherlangs
a list of other languages used in the document in the YAML metadata, according to BCP 47. For example: otherlangs: [en-GB, fr]. This is automatically generated from the lang attributes in all spans and divs but can be overridden. Currently only used by LaTeX through the generated babel-otherlangs and polyglossia-otherlangs variables. The LaTeX writer outputs polyglossia commands in the text but the babel-newcommands variable contains mappings for them to the corresponding babel.
dir

the base direction of the document, either rtl (right-to-left) or ltr (left-to-right).

For bidirectional documents, native pandoc spans and divs with the dir attribute (value rtl or ltr) can be used to override the base direction in some output formats. This may not always be necessary if the final renderer (e.g. the browser, when generating HTML) supports the Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm.

When using LaTeX for bidirectional documents, only the xelatex engine is fully supported (use --latex-engine=xelatex).

## Variables for slides

Variables are available for producing slide shows with pandoc, including all reveal.js configuration options.

slidy-url
base URL for Slidy documents (defaults to http://www.w3.org/Talks/Tools/Slidy2)
slideous-url
base URL for Slideous documents (defaults to slideous)
s5-url
base URL for S5 documents (defaults to s5/default)
revealjs-url
base URL for reveal.js documents (defaults to reveal.js)
theme, colortheme, fonttheme, innertheme, outertheme
themes for LaTeX beamer documents
themeoptions
options for LaTeX beamer themes (a list).
controls navigation symbols in beamer documents (default is empty for no navigation symbols; other valid values are frame, vertical, and horizontal).
section-titles
enables on “title pages” for new sections in beamer documents (default = true).
beamerarticle
when true, the beamerarticle package is loaded (for producing an article from beamer slides).
add color to link text; automatically enabled if any of linkcolor, citecolor, urlcolor, or toccolor are set (for beamer only).

## Variables for LaTeX

LaTeX variables are used when creating a PDF.

papersize
paper size, e.g. letter, A4
fontsize
font size for body text (e.g. 10pt, 12pt)
documentclass
document class, e.g. article, report, book, memoir
classoption
option for document class, e.g. oneside; may be repeated for multiple options
geometry
option for geometry package, e.g. margin=1in; may be repeated for multiple options
margin-left, margin-right, margin-top, margin-bottom
sets margins, if geometry is not used (otherwise geometry overrides these)
linestretch
adjusts line spacing using the setspace package, e.g. 1.25, 1.5
fontfamily
font package for use with pdflatex: TeX Live includes many options, documented in the LaTeX Font Catalogue. The default is Latin Modern.
fontfamilyoptions
options for package used as fontfamily: e.g. osf,sc with fontfamily set to mathpazo provides Palatino with old-style figures and true small caps; may be repeated for multiple options
mainfont, sansfont, monofont, mathfont, CJKmainfont
font families for use with xelatex or lualatex: take the name of any system font, using the fontspec package. Note that if CJKmainfont is used, the xecjk package must be available.
mainfontoptions, sansfontoptions, monofontoptions, mathfontoptions, CJKoptions
options to use with mainfont, sansfont, monofont, mathfont, CJKmainfont in xelatex and lualatex. Allow for any choices available through fontspec, such as the OpenType features Numbers=OldStyle,Numbers=Proportional. May be repeated for multiple options.
fontenc
allows font encoding to be specified through fontenc package (with pdflatex); default is T1 (see guide to LaTeX font encodings)
add color to link text; automatically enabled if any of linkcolor, citecolor, urlcolor, or toccolor are set
causes links to be printed as footnotes
indent
uses document class settings for indentation (the default LaTeX template otherwise removes indentation and adds space between paragraphs)
subparagraph
disables default behavior of LaTeX template that redefines (sub)paragraphs as sections, changing the appearance of nested headings in some classes
thanks
specifies contents of acknowledgments footnote after document title.
toc
toc-depth
secnumdepth
numbering depth for sections, if sections are numbered
lof, lot
include list of figures, list of tables
bibliography
bibliography to use for resolving references
biblio-style
bibliography style, when used with --natbib and --biblatex.
biblio-title
bibliography title, when used with --natbib and --biblatex.
biblatexoptions
list of options for biblatex.

## Variables for ConTeXt

papersize
paper size, e.g. letter, A4, landscape (see ConTeXt Paper Setup); may be repeated for multiple options
layout
options for page margins and text arrangement (see ConTeXt Layout); may be repeated for multiple options
margin-left, margin-right, margin-top, margin-bottom
sets margins, if layout is not used (otherwise layout overrides these)
fontsize
font size for body text (e.g. 10pt, 12pt)
mainfont, sansfont, monofont, mathfont
font families: take the name of any system font (see ConTeXt Font Switching)
color for links outside and inside a page, e.g. red, blue (see ConTeXt Color)
typeface style for links, e.g. normal, bold, slanted, boldslanted, type, cap, small
indenting
controls indentation of paragraphs, e.g. yes,small,next (see ConTeXt Indentation); may be repeated for multiple options
whitespace
spacing between paragraphs, e.g. none, small (using setupwhitespace)
interlinespace
adjusts line spacing, e.g. 4ex (using setupinterlinespace); may be repeated for multiple options
text to be placed in running header or footer (see ConTeXt Headers and Footers); may be repeated up to four times for different placement
pagenumbering
page number style and location (using setuppagenumbering); may be repeated for multiple options
toc
lof, lot
include list of figures, list of tables

## Variables for man pages

section
section number in man pages
footer
footer in man pages
adjusts text to left (l), right (r), center (c), or both (b) margins
hyphenate
if true (the default), hyphenation will be used

## Using variables in templates

### Small caps

To write small caps, you can use an HTML span tag:

<span style="font-variant:small-caps;">Small caps</span>

(The semicolon is optional and there may be space after the colon.) This will work in all output formats that support small caps.

Alternatively, you can also use the new bracketed_spans syntax:

[Small caps]{style="font-variant:small-caps;"}

## Math

#### Extension: tex_math_dollars

Anything between two $characters will be treated as TeX math. The opening$ must have a non-space character immediately to its right, while the closing $must have a non-space character immediately to its left, and must not be followed immediately by a digit. Thus,$20,000 and $30,000 won’t parse as math. If for some reason you need to enclose text in literal$ characters, backslash-escape them and they won’t be treated as math delimiters.

TeX math will be printed in all output formats. How it is rendered depends on the output format:

Markdown, LaTeX, Emacs Org mode, ConTeXt, ZimWiki
It will appear verbatim between $characters. reStructuredText It will be rendered using an interpreted text role :math:. AsciiDoc It will be rendered as latexmath:[...]. Texinfo It will be rendered inside a @math command. groff man It will be rendered verbatim without$’s.
MediaWiki, DokuWiki
It will be rendered inside [itex] tags.
Textile
It will be rendered inside <span class="math"> tags.
RTF, OpenDocument, ODT
It will be rendered, if possible, using unicode characters, and will otherwise appear verbatim.
DocBook
If the --mathml flag is used, it will be rendered using MathML in an inlineequation or informalequation tag. Otherwise it will be rendered, if possible, using unicode characters.
Docx
It will be rendered using OMML math markup.
FictionBook2
If the --webtex option is used, formulas are rendered as images using CodeCogs or other compatible web service, downloaded and embedded in the e-book. Otherwise, they will appear verbatim.
HTML, Slidy, DZSlides, S5, EPUB

The way math is rendered in HTML will depend on the command-line options selected:

1. The default is to render TeX math as far as possible using unicode characters, as with RTF, DocBook, and OpenDocument output. Formulas are put inside a span with class="math", so that they may be styled differently from the surrounding text if needed.

2. If the --latexmathml option is used, TeX math will be displayed between $or$$characters and put in <span> tags with class LaTeX. The LaTeXMathML script will be used to render it as formulas. (This trick does not work in all browsers, but it works in Firefox. In browsers that do not support LaTeXMathML, TeX math will appear verbatim between$ characters.)

3. If the --jsmath option is used, TeX math will be put inside <span> tags (for inline math) or <div> tags (for display math) with class math. The jsMath script will be used to render it.

4. If the --mimetex option is used, the mimeTeX CGI script will be called to generate images for each TeX formula. This should work in all browsers. The --mimetex option takes an optional URL as argument. If no URL is specified, it will be assumed that the mimeTeX CGI script is at /cgi-bin/mimetex.cgi.

5. If the --gladtex option is used, TeX formulas will be enclosed in <eq> tags in the HTML output. The resulting htex file may then be processed by gladTeX, which will produce image files for each formula and an HTML file with links to these images. So, the procedure is:

pandoc -s --gladtex myfile.txt -o myfile.htex
# produces myfile.html and images in myfile-images
6. If the --webtex option is used, TeX formulas will be converted to <img> tags that link to an external script that converts formulas to images. The formula will be URL-encoded and concatenated with the URL provided. If no URL is specified, the CodeCogs will be used (https://latex.codecogs.com/png.latex?).

7. If the --mathjax option is used, TeX math will be displayed between $$...$$ (for inline math) or $...$ (for display math) and put in <span> tags with class math. The MathJax script will be used to render it as formulas.

## Raw HTML

#### Extension: raw_html

Markdown allows you to insert raw HTML (or DocBook) anywhere in a document (except verbatim contexts, where <, >, and & are interpreted literally). (Technically this is not an extension, since standard Markdown allows it, but it has been made an extension so that it can be disabled if desired.)

The raw HTML is passed through unchanged in HTML, S5, Slidy, Slideous, DZSlides, EPUB, Markdown, Emacs Org mode, and Textile output, and suppressed in other formats.

#### Extension: markdown_in_html_blocks

Standard Markdown allows you to include HTML “blocks”: blocks of HTML between balanced tags that are separated from the surrounding text with blank lines, and start and end at the left margin. Within these blocks, everything is interpreted as HTML, not Markdown; so (for example), * does not signify emphasis.

Pandoc behaves this way when the markdown_strict format is used; but by default, pandoc interprets material between HTML block tags as Markdown. Thus, for example, pandoc will turn

<table>
<tr>
<td>*one*</td>
</tr>
</table>

into

<table>
<tr>
<td><em>one</em></td>
</tr>
</table>

whereas Markdown.pl will preserve it as is.

There is one exception to this rule: text between <script> and <style> tags is not interpreted as Markdown.

This departure from standard Markdown should make it easier to mix Markdown with HTML block elements. For example, one can surround a block of Markdown text with <div> tags without preventing it from being interpreted as Markdown.

#### Extension: native_divs

Use native pandoc Div blocks for content inside <div> tags. For the most part this should give the same output as markdown_in_html_blocks, but it makes it easier to write pandoc filters to manipulate groups of blocks.

#### Extension: native_spans

Use native pandoc Span blocks for content inside <span> tags. For the most part this should give the same output as raw_html, but it makes it easier to write pandoc filters to manipulate groups of inlines.

## Raw TeX

#### Extension: raw_tex

In addition to raw HTML, pandoc allows raw LaTeX, TeX, and ConTeXt to be included in a document. Inline TeX commands will be preserved and passed unchanged to the LaTeX and ConTeXt writers. Thus, for example, you can use LaTeX to include BibTeX citations:

This result was proved in \cite{jones.1967}.

Note that in LaTeX environments, like

\begin{tabular}{|l|l|}\hline
Age & Frequency \\ \hline
18--25  & 15 \\
26--35  & 33 \\
36--45  & 22 \\ \hline
\end{tabular}

the material between the begin and end tags will be interpreted as raw LaTeX, not as Markdown.

Inline LaTeX is ignored in output formats other than Markdown, LaTeX, Emacs Org mode, and ConTeXt.

## LaTeX macros

#### Extension: latex_macros


\newcommand{\tuple}[1]{\langle #1 \rangle}

$\tuple{a, b, c}$

In LaTeX output, the \newcommand definition will simply be passed unchanged to the output.

Markdown allows links to be specified in several ways.

If you enclose a URL or email address in pointy brackets, it will become a link:

<sam@green.eggs.ham>

An inline link consists of the link text in square brackets, followed by the URL in parentheses. (Optionally, the URL can be followed by a link title, in quotes.)

This is an [inline link](/url), and here's [one with

There can be no space between the bracketed part and the parenthesized part. The link text can contain formatting (such as emphasis), but the title cannot.

Email addresses in inline links are not autodetected, so they have to be prefixed with mailto:

[Write me!](mailto:sam@green.eggs.ham)

An explicit reference link has two parts, the link itself and the link definition, which may occur elsewhere in the document (either before or after the link).

The link consists of link text in square brackets, followed by a label in square brackets. (There can be space between the two.) The link definition consists of the bracketed label, followed by a colon and a space, followed by the URL, and optionally (after a space) a link title either in quotes or in parentheses. The label must not be parseable as a citation (assuming the citations extension is enabled): citations take precedence over link labels.

Here are some examples:

[my label 1]: /foo/bar.html  "My title, optional"
[my label 2]: /foo
[my label 3]: http://fsf.org (The free software foundation)
[my label 4]: /bar#special  'A title in single quotes'

The URL may optionally be surrounded by angle brackets:

[my label 5]: <http://foo.bar.baz>

The title may go on the next line:

[my label 3]: http://fsf.org
"The free software foundation"

Note that link labels are not case sensitive. So, this will work:

[Foo]: /bar/baz

In an implicit reference link, the second pair of brackets is empty:

See [my website][].

[my website]: http://foo.bar.baz

Note: In Markdown.pl and most other Markdown implementations, reference link definitions cannot occur in nested constructions such as list items or block quotes. Pandoc lifts this arbitrary seeming restriction. So the following is fine in pandoc, though not in most other implementations:

> My block [quote].
>
> [quote]: /foo

In a shortcut reference link, the second pair of brackets may be omitted entirely:

See [my website].

[my website]: http://foo.bar.baz

To link to another section of the same document, use the automatically generated identifier (see Header identifiers). For example:

See the [Introduction](#introduction).

or

See the [Introduction].

[Introduction]: #introduction

Internal links are currently supported for HTML formats (including HTML slide shows and EPUB), LaTeX, and ConTeXt.

## Images

A link immediately preceded by a ! will be treated as an image. The link text will be used as the image’s alt text:

![la lune](lalune.jpg "Voyage to the moon")

![movie reel]

[movie reel]: movie.gif

#### Extension: implicit_figures

An image occurring by itself in a paragraph will be rendered as a figure with a caption.5 (In LaTeX, a figure environment will be used; in HTML, the image will be placed in a div with class figure, together with a caption in a p with class caption.) The image’s alt text will be used as the caption.

![This is the caption](/url/of/image.png)

If you just want a regular inline image, just make sure it is not the only thing in the paragraph. One way to do this is to insert a nonbreaking space after the image:

![This image won't be a figure](/url/of/image.png)\

Attributes can be set on links and images:

An inline ![image](foo.jpg){#id .class width=30 height=20px}
and a reference ![image][ref] with attributes.

[ref]: foo.jpg "optional title" {#id .class key=val key2="val 2"}

(This syntax is compatible with PHP Markdown Extra when only #id and .class are used.)

For HTML and EPUB, all attributes except width and height (but including srcset and sizes) are passed through as is. The other writers ignore attributes that are not supported by their output format.

The width and height attributes on images are treated specially. When used without a unit, the unit is assumed to be pixels. However, any of the following unit identifiers can be used: px, cm, mm, in, inch and %. There must not be any spaces between the number and the unit. For example:

![](file.jpg){ width=50% }
• Dimensions are converted to inches for output in page-based formats like LaTeX. Dimensions are converted to pixels for output in HTML-like formats. Use the --dpi option to specify the number of pixels per inch. The default is 96dpi.
• The % unit is generally relative to some available space. For example the above example will render to <img href="file.jpg" style="width: 50%;" /> (HTML), \includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{file.jpg} (LaTeX), or \externalfigure[file.jpg][width=0.5\textwidth] (ConTeXt).
• Some output formats have a notion of a class (ConTeXt) or a unique identifier (LaTeX \caption), or both (HTML).
• When no width or height attributes are specified, the fallback is to look at the image resolution and the dpi metadata embedded in the image file.

## Spans

#### Extension: bracketed_spans

A bracketed sequence of inlines, as one would use to begin a link, will be treated as a span with attributes if it is followed immediately by attributes:

[This is *some text*]{.class key="val"}

## Footnotes

#### Extension: footnotes

Pandoc’s Markdown allows footnotes, using the following syntax:

Here is a footnote reference,[^1] and another.[^longnote]

[^1]: Here is the footnote.

[^longnote]: Here's one with multiple blocks.

Subsequent paragraphs are indented to show that they
belong to the previous footnote.

{ some.code }

The whole paragraph can be indented, or just the first
line.  In this way, multi-paragraph footnotes work like
multi-paragraph list items.

This paragraph won't be part of the note, because it
isn't indented.

The identifiers in footnote references may not contain spaces, tabs, or newlines. These identifiers are used only to correlate the footnote reference with the note itself; in the output, footnotes will be numbered sequentially.

The footnotes themselves need not be placed at the end of the document. They may appear anywhere except inside other block elements (lists, block quotes, tables, etc.).

#### Extension: inline_notes

Inline footnotes are also allowed (though, unlike regular notes, they cannot contain multiple paragraphs). The syntax is as follows:

Here is an inline note.^[Inlines notes are easier to write, since
you don't have to pick an identifier and move down to type the
note.]

Inline and regular footnotes may be mixed freely.

## Citations

#### Extension: citations

Using an external filter, pandoc-citeproc, pandoc can automatically generate citations and a bibliography in a number of styles. Basic usage is

pandoc --filter pandoc-citeproc myinput.txt

In order to use this feature, you will need to specify a bibliography file using the bibliography metadata field in a YAML metadata section, or --bibliography command line argument. You can supply multiple --bibliography arguments or set bibliography metadata field to YAML array, if you want to use multiple bibliography files. The bibliography may have any of these formats:

Format File extension
BibLaTeX .bib
BibTeX .bibtex
Copac .copac
CSL JSON .json
CSL YAML .yaml
EndNote .enl
EndNote XML .xml
ISI .wos
MEDLINE .medline
MODS .mods
RIS .ris

Note that .bib can be used with both BibTeX and BibLaTeX files; use .bibtex to force BibTeX.

Note that pandoc-citeproc --bib2json and pandoc-citeproc --bib2yaml can produce .json and .yaml files from any of the supported formats.

In-field markup: In BibTeX and BibLaTeX databases, pandoc-citeproc parses a subset of LaTeX markup; in CSL YAML databases, pandoc Markdown; and in CSL JSON databases, an HTML-like markup:

<i>...</i>
italics
<b>...</b>
bold
<span style="font-variant:small-caps;">...</span> or <sc>...</sc>
small capitals
<sub>...</sub>
subscript
<sup>...</sup>
superscript
<span class="nocase">...</span>
prevent a phrase from being capitalized as title case

pandoc-citeproc -j and -y interconvert the CSL JSON and CSL YAML formats as far as possible.

As an alternative to specifying a bibliography file using --bibliography or the YAML metadata field bibliography, you can include the citation data directly in the references field of the document’s YAML metadata. The field should contain an array of YAML-encoded references, for example:

---
references:
- type: article-journal
id: WatsonCrick1953
author:
- family: Watson
given: J. D.
- family: Crick
given: F. H. C.
issued:
date-parts:
- - 1953
- 4
- 25
title: 'Molecular structure of nucleic acids: a structure for deoxyribose
nucleic acid'
title-short: Molecular structure of nucleic acids
container-title: Nature
volume: 171
issue: 4356
page: 737-738
DOI: 10.1038/171737a0
URL: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v171/n4356/abs/171737a0.html
language: en-GB
...

(pandoc-citeproc --bib2yaml can produce these from a bibliography file in one of the supported formats.)

Citations and references can be formatted using any style supported by the Citation Style Language, listed in the Zotero Style Repository. These files are specified using the --csl option or the csl metadata field. By default, pandoc-citeproc will use the Chicago Manual of Style author-date format. The CSL project provides further information on finding and editing styles.

Citations go inside square brackets and are separated by semicolons. Each citation must have a key, composed of ‘@’ + the citation identifier from the database, and may optionally have a prefix, a locator, and a suffix. The citation key must begin with a letter, digit, or _, and may contain alphanumerics, _, and internal punctuation characters (:.#$%&-+?<>~/). Here are some examples: Blah blah [see @doe99, pp. 33-35; also @smith04, chap. 1]. Blah blah [@doe99, pp. 33-35, 38-39 and *passim*]. Blah blah [@smith04; @doe99]. pandoc-citeproc detects locator terms in the CSL locale files. Either abbreviated or unabbreviated forms are accepted. In the en-US locale, locator terms can be written in either singular or plural forms, as book, bk./bks.; chapter, chap./chaps.; column, col./cols.; figure, fig./figs.; folio, fol./fols.; number, no./nos.; line, l./ll.; note, n./nn.; opus, op./opp.; page, p./pp.; paragraph, para./paras.; part, pt./pts.; section, sec./secs.; sub verbo, s.v./s.vv.; verse, v./vv.; volume, vol./vols.; /¶¶; §/§§. If no locator term is used, “page” is assumed. A minus sign (-) before the @ will suppress mention of the author in the citation. This can be useful when the author is already mentioned in the text: Smith says blah [-@smith04]. You can also write an in-text citation, as follows: @smith04 says blah. @smith04 [p. 33] says blah. If the style calls for a list of works cited, it will be placed at the end of the document. Normally, you will want to end your document with an appropriate header: last paragraph... # References The bibliography will be inserted after this header. Note that the unnumbered class will be added to this header, so that the section will not be numbered. If you want to include items in the bibliography without actually citing them in the body text, you can define a dummy nocite metadata field and put the citations there: --- nocite: | @item1, @item2 ... @item3 In this example, the document will contain a citation for item3 only, but the bibliography will contain entries for item1, item2, and item3. For LaTeX or PDF output, you can also use natbib or biblatex to render bibliography. In order to do so, specify bibliography files as outlined above, and add --natbib or --biblatex argument to pandoc invocation. Bear in mind that bibliography files have to be in respective format (either BibTeX or BibLaTeX). For more information, see the pandoc-citeproc man page. ## Non-pandoc extensions The following Markdown syntax extensions are not enabled by default in pandoc, but may be enabled by adding +EXTENSION to the format name, where EXTENSION is the name of the extension. Thus, for example, markdown+hard_line_breaks is Markdown with hard line breaks. #### Extension: angle_brackets_escapable Allow < and > to be backslash-escaped, as they can be in GitHub flavored Markdown but not original Markdown. This is implied by pandoc’s default all_symbols_escapable. #### Extension: lists_without_preceding_blankline Allow a list to occur right after a paragraph, with no intervening blank space. #### Extension: hard_line_breaks Causes all newlines within a paragraph to be interpreted as hard line breaks instead of spaces. #### Extension: ignore_line_breaks Causes newlines within a paragraph to be ignored, rather than being treated as spaces or as hard line breaks. This option is intended for use with East Asian languages where spaces are not used between words, but text is divided into lines for readability. #### Extension: east_asian_line_breaks Causes newlines within a paragraph to be ignored, rather than being treated as spaces or as hard line breaks, when they occur between two East Asian wide characters. This is a better choice than ignore_line_breaks for texts that include a mix of East Asian wide characters and other characters. ##### Extension: emoji Parses textual emojis like :smile: as Unicode emoticons. #### Extension: tex_math_single_backslash Causes anything between $$and$$ to be interpreted as inline TeX math, and anything between $and$ to be interpreted as display TeX math. Note: a drawback of this extension is that it precludes escaping ( and [. #### Extension: tex_math_double_backslash Causes anything between \$$and \$$ to be interpreted as inline TeX math, and anything between \$and \$ to be interpreted as display TeX math. #### Extension: markdown_attribute By default, pandoc interprets material inside block-level tags as Markdown. This extension changes the behavior so that Markdown is only parsed inside block-level tags if the tags have the attribute markdown=1. #### Extension: mmd_title_block Enables a MultiMarkdown style title block at the top of the document, for example: Title: My title Author: John Doe Date: September 1, 2008 Comment: This is a sample mmd title block, with a field spanning multiple lines. See the MultiMarkdown documentation for details. If pandoc_title_block or yaml_metadata_block is enabled, it will take precedence over mmd_title_block. #### Extension: abbreviations Parses PHP Markdown Extra abbreviation keys, like *[HTML]: Hypertext Markup Language Note that the pandoc document model does not support abbreviations, so if this extension is enabled, abbreviation keys are simply skipped (as opposed to being parsed as paragraphs). Makes all absolute URIs into links, even when not surrounded by pointy braces <...>. #### Extension: ascii_identifiers Causes the identifiers produced by auto_identifiers to be pure ASCII. Accents are stripped off of accented latin letters, and non-latin letters are omitted. Parses multimarkdown style key-value attributes on link and image references. This extension should not be confused with the link_attributes extension. This is a reference ![image][ref] with multimarkdown attributes. [ref]: http://path.to/image "Image title" width=20px height=30px id=myId class="myClass1 myClass2" #### Extension: mmd_header_identifiers Parses multimarkdown style header identifiers (in square brackets, after the header but before any trailing #s in an ATX header). #### Extension: compact_definition_lists Activates the definition list syntax of pandoc 1.12.x and earlier. This syntax differs from the one described above under Definition lists in several respects: • No blank line is required between consecutive items of the definition list. • To get a “tight” or “compact” list, omit space between consecutive items; the space between a term and its definition does not affect anything. • Lazy wrapping of paragraphs is not allowed: the entire definition must be indented four spaces.6 ## Markdown variants In addition to pandoc’s extended Markdown, the following Markdown variants are supported: markdown_phpextra (PHP Markdown Extra) footnotes, pipe_tables, raw_html, markdown_attribute, fenced_code_blocks, definition_lists, intraword_underscores, header_attributes, link_attributes, abbreviations, shortcut_reference_links. markdown_github (GitHub-Flavored Markdown) pipe_tables, raw_html, fenced_code_blocks, auto_identifiers, ascii_identifiers, backtick_code_blocks, autolink_bare_uris, intraword_underscores, strikeout, hard_line_breaks, emoji, shortcut_reference_links, angle_brackets_escapable. markdown_mmd (MultiMarkdown) pipe_tables, raw_html, markdown_attribute, mmd_link_attributes, tex_math_double_backslash, intraword_underscores, mmd_title_block, footnotes, definition_lists, all_symbols_escapable, implicit_header_references, auto_identifiers, mmd_header_identifiers, shortcut_reference_links. markdown_strict (Markdown.pl) raw_html ## Extensions with formats other than Markdown Some of the extensions discussed above can be used with formats other than Markdown: • auto_identifiers can be used with latex, rst, mediawiki, and textile input (and is used by default). • tex_math_dollars, tex_math_single_backslash, and tex_math_double_backslash can be used with html input. (This is handy for reading web pages formatted using MathJax, for example.) # Producing slide shows with pandoc You can use pandoc to produce an HTML + javascript slide presentation that can be viewed via a web browser. There are five ways to do this, using S5, DZSlides, Slidy, Slideous, or reveal.js. You can also produce a PDF slide show using LaTeX beamer. Here’s the Markdown source for a simple slide show, habits.txt: % Habits % John Doe % March 22, 2005 # In the morning ## Getting up - Turn off alarm - Get out of bed ## Breakfast - Eat eggs - Drink coffee # In the evening ## Dinner - Eat spaghetti - Drink wine ------------------ ![picture of spaghetti](images/spaghetti.jpg) ## Going to sleep - Get in bed - Count sheep To produce an HTML/javascript slide show, simply type pandoc -t FORMAT -s habits.txt -o habits.html where FORMAT is either s5, slidy, slideous, dzslides, or revealjs. For Slidy, Slideous, reveal.js, and S5, the file produced by pandoc with the -s/--standalone option embeds a link to javascripts and CSS files, which are assumed to be available at the relative path s5/default (for S5), slideous (for Slideous), reveal.js (for reveal.js), or at the Slidy website at w3.org (for Slidy). (These paths can be changed by setting the slidy-url, slideous-url, revealjs-url, or s5-url variables; see Variables for slides, above.) For DZSlides, the (relatively short) javascript and css are included in the file by default. With all HTML slide formats, the --self-contained option can be used to produce a single file that contains all of the data necessary to display the slide show, including linked scripts, stylesheets, images, and videos. To produce a PDF slide show using beamer, type pandoc -t beamer habits.txt -o habits.pdf Note that a reveal.js slide show can also be converted to a PDF by printing it to a file from the browser. ## Structuring the slide show By default, the slide level is the highest header level in the hierarchy that is followed immediately by content, and not another header, somewhere in the document. In the example above, level 1 headers are always followed by level 2 headers, which are followed by content, so 2 is the slide level. This default can be overridden using the --slide-level option. The document is carved up into slides according to the following rules: • A horizontal rule always starts a new slide. • A header at the slide level always starts a new slide. • Headers below the slide level in the hierarchy create headers within a slide. • Headers above the slide level in the hierarchy create “title slides,” which just contain the section title and help to break the slide show into sections. • A title page is constructed automatically from the document’s title block, if present. (In the case of beamer, this can be disabled by commenting out some lines in the default template.) These rules are designed to support many different styles of slide show. If you don’t care about structuring your slides into sections and subsections, you can just use level 1 headers for all each slide. (In that case, level 1 will be the slide level.) But you can also structure the slide show into sections, as in the example above. Note: in reveal.js slide shows, if slide level is 2, a two-dimensional layout will be produced, with level 1 headers building horizontally and level 2 headers building vertically. It is not recommended that you use deeper nesting of section levels with reveal.js. ## Incremental lists By default, these writers produce lists that display “all at once.” If you want your lists to display incrementally (one item at a time), use the -i option. If you want a particular list to depart from the default (that is, to display incrementally without the -i option and all at once with the -i option), put it in a block quote: > - Eat spaghetti > - Drink wine In this way incremental and nonincremental lists can be mixed in a single document. ## Inserting pauses You can add “pauses” within a slide by including a paragraph containing three dots, separated by spaces: # Slide with a pause content before the pause . . . content after the pause ## Styling the slides You can change the style of HTML slides by putting customized CSS files in$DATADIR/s5/default (for S5), $DATADIR/slidy (for Slidy), or$DATADIR/slideous (for Slideous), where $DATADIR is the user data directory (see --data-dir, above). The originals may be found in pandoc’s system data directory (generally$CABALDIR/pandoc-VERSION/s5/default). Pandoc will look there for any files it does not find in the user data directory.

For dzslides, the CSS is included in the HTML file itself, and may be modified there.

All reveal.js configuration options can be set through variables. For example, themes can be used by setting the theme variable:

-V theme=moon

Or you can specify a custom stylesheet using the --css option.

To style beamer slides, you can specify a theme, colortheme, fonttheme, innertheme, and outertheme, using the -V option:

pandoc -t beamer habits.txt -V theme:Warsaw -o habits.pdf

Note that header attributes will turn into slide attributes (on a <div> or <section>) in HTML slide formats, allowing you to style individual slides. In beamer, the only header attribute that affects slides is the allowframebreaks class, which sets the allowframebreaks option, causing multiple slides to be created if the content overfills the frame. This is recommended especially for bibliographies:

# References {.allowframebreaks}

## Speaker notes

reveal.js has good support for speaker notes. You can add notes to your Markdown document thus:

<div class="notes">
This is my note.

- It can contain Markdown
- like this list

</div>

To show the notes window, press s while viewing the presentation. Notes are not yet supported for other slide formats, but the notes will not appear on the slides themselves.

## Frame attributes in beamer

Sometimes it is necessary to add the LaTeX [fragile] option to a frame in beamer (for example, when using the minted environment). This can be forced by adding the fragile class to the header introducing the slide:

# Fragile slide {.fragile}

All of the other frame attributes described in Section 8.1 of the Beamer User’s Guide may also be used: allowdisplaybreaks, allowframebreaks, b, c, t, environment, label, plain, shrink.

# Creating EPUBs with pandoc

EPUB metadata may be specified using the --epub-metadata option, but if the source document is Markdown, it is better to use a YAML metadata block. Here is an example:

---
title:
- type: main
text: My Book
- type: subtitle
creator:
- role: author
text: John Smith
- role: editor
text: Sarah Jones
identifier:
- scheme: DOI
text: doi:10.234234.234/33
publisher:  My Press
rights: © 2007 John Smith, CC BY-NC
...

The following fields are recognized:

identifier
Either a string value or an object with fields text and scheme. Valid values for scheme are ISBN-10, GTIN-13, UPC, ISMN-10, DOI, LCCN, GTIN-14, ISBN-13, Legal deposit number, URN, OCLC, ISMN-13, ISBN-A, JP, OLCC.
title
Either a string value, or an object with fields file-as and type, or a list of such objects. Valid values for type are main, subtitle, short, collection, edition, extended.
creator
Either a string value, or an object with fields role, file-as, and text, or a list of such objects. Valid values for role are MARC relators, but pandoc will attempt to translate the human-readable versions (like “author” and “editor”) to the appropriate marc relators.
contributor
Same format as creator.
date
A string value in YYYY-MM-DD format. (Only the year is necessary.) Pandoc will attempt to convert other common date formats.
lang (or legacy: language)
A string value in BCP 47 format. Pandoc will default to the local language if nothing is specified.
subject
A string value or a list of such values.
description
A string value.
type
A string value.
format
A string value.
relation
A string value.
coverage
A string value.
rights
A string value.
cover-image
A string value (path to cover image).
stylesheet
A string value (path to CSS stylesheet).
page-progression-direction
Either ltr or rtl. Specifies the page-progression-direction attribute for the spine element.

By default, pandoc will download linked media (including audio and video) and include it in the EPUB container, yielding a completely self-contained EPUB. If you want to link to external media resources instead, use raw HTML in your source and add data-external="1" to the tag with the src attribute. For example:

<audio controls="1">
<source src="http://example.com/music/toccata.mp3"
data-external="1" type="audio/mpeg">
</source>
</audio>

If you append +lhs (or +literate_haskell) to an appropriate input or output format (markdown, markdown_strict, rst, or latex for input or output; beamer, html or html5 for output only), pandoc will treat the document as literate Haskell source. This means that

• In Markdown input, “bird track” sections will be parsed as Haskell code rather than block quotations. Text between \begin{code} and \end{code} will also be treated as Haskell code. For ATX-style headers the character ‘=’ will be used instead of ‘#’.

• In Markdown output, code blocks with classes haskell and literate will be rendered using bird tracks, and block quotations will be indented one space, so they will not be treated as Haskell code. In addition, headers will be rendered setext-style (with underlines) rather than ATX-style (with ‘#’ characters). (This is because ghc treats ‘#’ characters in column 1 as introducing line numbers.)

• In restructured text input, “bird track” sections will be parsed as Haskell code.

• In restructured text output, code blocks with class haskell will be rendered using bird tracks.

• In LaTeX input, text in code environments will be parsed as Haskell code.

• In LaTeX output, code blocks with class haskell will be rendered inside code environments.

• In HTML output, code blocks with class haskell will be rendered with class literatehaskell and bird tracks.

Examples:

pandoc -f markdown+lhs -t html

reads literate Haskell source formatted with Markdown conventions and writes ordinary HTML (without bird tracks).

pandoc -f markdown+lhs -t html+lhs

writes HTML with the Haskell code in bird tracks, so it can be copied and pasted as literate Haskell source.

# Syntax highlighting

Pandoc will automatically highlight syntax in fenced code blocks that are marked with a language name. The Haskell library highlighting-kate is used for highlighting, which works in HTML, Docx, and LaTeX/PDF output. To see a list of language names that pandoc will recognize, type pandoc --list-highlight-languages.

The color scheme can be selected using the --highlight-style option. The default color scheme is pygments, which imitates the default color scheme used by the Python library pygments (though pygments is not actually used to do the highlighting). To see a list of highlight styles, type pandoc --list-hightlight-styles.

To disable highlighting, use the --no-highlight option.

# Custom Styles in Docx Output

By default, pandoc’s docx output applies a predefined set of styles for blocks such as paragraphs and block quotes, and uses largely default formatting (italics, bold) for inlines. This will work for most purposes, especially alongside a reference.docx file. However, if you need to apply your own styles to blocks, or match a preexisting set of styles, pandoc allows you to define custom styles for blocks and text using divs and spans, respecitively.

If you define a div or span with the attribute custom-style, pandoc will apply your specified style to the contained elements. So, for example,

<span custom-style="Emphatically">Get out,</span> he said.

would produce a docx file with “Get out,” styled with character style Emphatically. Similarly,

Dickinson starts the poem simply:

<div custom-style="Poetry">
| A Bird came down the Walk---
| He did not know I saw---
</div>

would style the two contained lines with the Poetry paragraph style.

If the styles are not yet in your reference.docx, they will be defined in the output file as inheriting from normal text. If they are already defined, pandoc will not alter the definition.

This feature allows for greatest customization in conjunction with pandoc filters. If you want all paragraphs after block quotes to be indented, you can write a filter to apply the styles necessary. If you want all italics to be transformed to the Emphasis character style (perhaps to change their color), you can write a filter which will transform all italicized inlines to inlines within an Emphasis custom-style span.

# Custom writers

Pandoc can be extended with custom writers written in lua. (Pandoc includes a lua interpreter, so lua need not be installed separately.)

To use a custom writer, simply specify the path to the lua script in place of the output format. For example:

pandoc -t data/sample.lua

Creating a custom writer requires writing a lua function for each possible element in a pandoc document. To get a documented example which you can modify according to your needs, do

pandoc --print-default-data-file sample.lua

# Authors

© 2006-2016 John MacFarlane (jgm@berkeley.edu). Released under the GPL, version 2 or greater. This software carries no warranty of any kind. (See COPYRIGHT for full copyright and warranty notices.)

Contributors include Arata Mizuki, Aaron Wolen, Albert Krewinkel, Alex Ivkin, Alex Vong, Alexander Kondratskiy, Alexander Sulfrian, Alexander V Vershilov, Alfred Wechselberger, Andreas Lööw, Andrew Dunning, Antoine Latter, Arata Mizuki, Arlo O’Keeffe, Artyom Kazak, B. Scott Michel, Ben Gamari, Beni Cherniavsky-Paskin, Benoit Schweblin, Bjorn Buckwalter, Bradley Kuhn, Brent Yorgey, Bryan O’Sullivan, Caleb McDaniel, Calvin Beck, Carlos Sosa, Chris Black, Christian Conkle, Christoffer Ackelman, Christoffer Sawicki, Clare Macrae, Clint Adams, Conal Elliott, Craig S. Bosma, Daniel Bergey, Daniel T. Staal, Daniele D’Orazio, David Lazar, David Röthlisberger, Denis Laxalde, Douglas Calvert, Emanuel Evans, Emily Eisenberg, Eric Kow, Eric Seidel, Felix Yan, Florian Eitel, François Gannaz, Freiric Barral, Freirich Raabe, Frerich Raabe, Fyodor Sheremetyev, Gabor Pali, Gavin Beatty, Gottfried Haider, Greg Maslov, Greg Rundlett, Grégory Bataille, Gwern Branwen, Hans-Peter Deifel, Henrik Tramberend, Henry de Valence, Hubert Plociniczak, Ilya V. Portnov, Ivo Clarysse, J. Lewis Muir, Jaime Marquínez Ferrándiz, Jakob Voß, James Aspnes, Jamie F. Olson, Jan Larres, Jan Schulz, Jason Ronallo, Jeff Arnold, Jeff Runningen, Jens Petersen, Jesse Rosenthal, Joe Hillenbrand, John MacFarlane, Jonas Smedegaard, Jonathan Daugherty, Jose Luis Duran, Josef Svenningsson, Julien Cretel, Juliusz Gonera, Justin Bogner, Jérémy Bobbio, Kelsey Hightower, Kolen Cheung, KolenCheung, Konstantin Zudov, Kristof Bastiaensen, Lars-Dominik Braun, Luke Plant, Mark Szepieniec, Mark Wright, Martin Linn, Masayoshi Takahashi, Matej Kollar, Mathias Schenner, Mathieu Duponchelle, Matthew Eddey, Matthew Pickering, Matthias C. M. Troffaes, Mauro Bieg, Max Bolingbroke, Max Rydahl Andersen, Merijn Verstraaten, Michael Beaumont, Michael Chladek, Michael Snoyman, Michael Thompson, MinRK, Morton Fox, Nathan Gass, Neil Mayhew, Nick Bart, Nicolas Kaiser, Nikolay Yakimov, Oliver Matthews, Ophir Lifshitz, Pablo Rodríguez, Paul Rivier, Paulo Tanimoto, Peter Wang, Philippe Ombredanne, Phillip Alday, Prayag Verma, Puneeth Chaganti, Ralf Stephan, Raniere Silva, Recai Oktaş, RyanGlScott, Scott Morrison, Sergei Trofimovich, Sergey Astanin, Shahbaz Youssefi, Shaun Attfield, Sidarth Kapur, Sidharth Kapur, Simon Hengel, Sumit Sahrawat, Thomas Hodgson, Thomas Weißschuh, Tim Lin, Timothy Humphries, Tiziano Müller, Todd Sifleet, Tom Leese, Uli Köhler, Václav Zeman, Viktor Kronvall, Vincent, Václav Zeman, Waldir Pimenta, Wikiwide, Xavier Olive, csforste, infinity0x, nkalvi, qerub, robabla, roblabla, rodja.trappe, rski, shreevatsa.public, takahashim, thsutton.

1. To make subtitle work with other LaTeX document classes, you can add the following to header-includes:

\providecommand{\subtitle}[1]{%
\usepackage{titling}
\posttitle{%
\par\large#1\end{center}}
}
2. The point of this rule is to ensure that normal paragraphs starting with people’s initials, like

B. Russell was an English philosopher.

do not get treated as list items.

This rule will not prevent

(C) 2007 Joe Smith

from being interpreted as a list item. In this case, a backslash escape can be used:

(C\) 2007 Joe Smith
3. I have been influenced by the suggestions of David Wheeler.

4. This scheme is due to Michel Fortin, who proposed it on the Markdown discussion list.

5. This feature is not yet implemented for RTF, OpenDocument, or ODT. In those formats, you’ll just get an image in a paragraph by itself, with no caption.

6. To see why laziness is incompatible with relaxing the requirement of a blank line between items, consider the following example:

bar
:    definition
foo
:    definition

Is this a single list item with two definitions of “bar,” the first of which is lazily wrapped, or two list items? To remove the ambiguity we must either disallow lazy wrapping or require a blank line between list items.