Learning Java

从 C++ 走向 Java,值得一看的书:Core Java (豆瓣)

Java 简介

What’s Java @

Java is a general-purpose computer programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application developers “write once, run anywhere” (WORA), meaning that compiled Java code can run on all platforms that support Java without the need for recompilation. Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of computer architecture. As of 2016, Java is one of the most popular programming languages in use, particularly for client-server web applications, with a reported 9 million developers. Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which has since been acquired by Oracle Corporation) and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems’ Java platform. The language derives much of its syntax from C and C++, but it has fewer low-level facilities than either of them.

Duke, the Java mascot ['mæskɑt]

Duke, the Java mascot ['mæskɑt]

Java 的流行 @
  • 5 million students study java
  • 10 million Java developers worldwide
  • 15 billion devices run Java
  • #1 platform for development in the cloud
Principles @

There were five primary goals in the creation of the Java language:

  • It must be “simple, object-oriented, and familiar”.
  • It must be “robust and secure”.
  • It must be “architecture-neutral and portable”.
  • It must execute with “high performance”.
  • It must be “interpreted, threaded, and dynamic”.
版本 @
  • JDK 1.0 (January 21, 1996)
  • JDK 1.1 (February 19, 1997)
  • J2SE 1.2 (December 8, 1998)
  • J2SE 1.3 (May 8, 2000)
  • J2SE 1.4 (February 6, 2002)
  • J2SE 5.0 (September 30, 2004)
  • Java SE 6 (December 11, 2006)
  • Java SE 7 (July 28, 2011)
  • Java SE 8 (March 18, 2014)
Java Platform @

One design goal of Java is portability, which means that programs written for the Java platform must run similarly on any combination of hardware and operating system with adequate runtime support. This is achieved by compiling the Java language code to an intermediate representation called Java bytecode, instead of directly to architecture-specific machine code. Java bytecode instructions are analogous to machine code, but they are intended to be executed by a virtual machine (VM) written specifically for the host hardware. End users commonly use a Java Runtime Environment (JRE) installed on their own machine for standalone Java applications, or in a web browser for Java applets.

Standard libraries provide a generic way to access 【host-specific】 features such as graphics, threading, and networking.

The use of universal bytecode makes porting simple. However, the overhead of interpreting bytecode into machine instructions makes interpreted programs almost always run more slowly than native executables. However, just-in-time (JIT) compilers that compile bytecodes to machine code during runtime were introduced from an early stage. Java itself is platform-independent, and is adapted to the particular platform it is to run on by a Java virtual machine for it, which translates the Java bytecode into the platform’s machine language.


  • Loading
  • Linking
  • Initializing

refs and see also

Javadoc @

Javadoc (originally cased as JavaDoc) is a documentation generator created by Sun Microsystems for the Java language (now owned by Oracle Corporation) for generating API documentation in HTML format from Java source code. The HTML format is used to add the convenience of being able to hyperlink related documents together.

The “doc comments” format used by Javadoc is the de facto industry standard for documenting Java classes. Some IDEs, such as Netbeans and Eclipse, automatically generate Javadoc HTML. Many file editors assist the user in producing Javadoc source and use the Javadoc info as internal references for the programmer.

Javadoc also provides an API for creating doclets and taglets, which allows you to analyze the structure of a Java application. This is how JDiff can generate reports of what changed between two versions of an API.

/** ... */

 * Short one line description.                           (1)
 * <p>
 * Longer description. If there were any, it would be    (2)
 * here.
 * <p>
 * And even more explanations to follow in consecutive
 * paragraphs separated by HTML paragraph breaks.
 * @param  variable Description text text text.          (3)
 * @return Description text text text.
public int methodName (...) {
    // method body with a return statement
 * Description of the variable here.
private int debug = 0;

// 鉴于 javadoc 都是一个变量一个变量生成文档的,下面这样就很不好:
 * The horizontal and vertical distances of point (x,y)
public int x, y;      // AVOID

// 虽然累一点,但建议这么写:
 * The horizontal distances of point.
public int x;

 * The vertical distances of point.
public int y;
 * Validates a chess move.
 * Use {@link #doMove(int theFromFile, int theFromRank, int theToFile, int theToRank)} to move a piece.
 * @param theFromFile file from which a piece is being moved
 * @param theFromRank rank from which a piece is being moved
 * @param theToFile   file to which a piece is being moved
 * @param theToRank   rank to which a piece is being moved
 * @return            true if the move is valid, otherwise false
boolean isValidMove(int theFromFile, int theFromRank, int theToFile, int theToRank) {
    // ...body

 * Moves a chess piece.
 * @see java.math.RoundingMode
void doMove(int theFromFile, int theFromRank, int theToFile, int theToRank)  {
    // ...body
$ javadoc
用法: javadoc [options] [packagenames] [sourcefiles] [@files]
  -overview <file>                 从 HTML 文件读取概览文档
  -public                          仅显示 public 类和成员
  -protected                       显示 protected/public 类和成员 (默认值)
  -package                         显示 package/protected/public 类和成员
  -private                         显示所有类和成员
  -help                            显示命令行选项并退出
  -doclet <class>                  通过替代 doclet 生成输出
  -docletpath <path>               指定查找 doclet 类文件的位置
  -sourcepath <pathlist>           指定查找源文件的位置
  -classpath <pathlist>            指定查找用户类文件的位置
  -cp <pathlist>                   指定查找用户类文件的位置
  -exclude <pkglist>               指定要排除的程序包列表
  -subpackages <subpkglist>        指定要递归加载的子程序包
  -breakiterator                   计算带有 BreakIterator 的第一个语句
  -bootclasspath <pathlist>        覆盖由引导类加载器所加载的
  -source <release>                提供与指定发行版的源兼容性
  -extdirs <dirlist>               覆盖所安装扩展的位置
  -verbose                         输出有关 Javadoc 正在执行的操作的信息
  -locale <name>                   要使用的区域设置, 例如 en_US 或 en_US_WIN
  -encoding <name>                 源文件编码名称
  -quiet                           不显示状态消息
  -J<flag>                         直接将 <flag> 传递到运行时系统
  -X                               输出非标准选项的提要

通过标准 doclet 提供:
  -d <directory>                   输出文件的目标目录
  -use                             创建类和程序包用法页面
  -version                         包含 @version 段
  -author                          包含 @author 段
  -docfilessubdirs                 递归复制文档文件子目录
  -splitindex                      将索引分为每个字母对应一个文件
  -windowtitle <text>              文档的浏览器窗口标题
  -doctitle <html-code>            包含概览页面的标题
  -header <html-code>              包含每个页面的页眉文本
  -footer <html-code>              包含每个页面的页脚文本
  -top    <html-code>              包含每个页面的顶部文本
  -bottom <html-code>              包含每个页面的底部文本
  -link <url>                      创建指向位于 <url> 的 javadoc 输出的链接
  -linkoffline <url> <url2>        利用位于 <url2> 的程序包列表链接至位于 <url> 的文档
  -excludedocfilessubdir <name1>:.. 排除具有给定名称的所有文档文件子目录。
  -group <name> <p1>:<p2>..        在概览页面中, 将指定的程序包分组
  -nocomment                       不生成说明和标记, 只生成声明。
  -nodeprecated                    不包含 @deprecated 信息
  -noqualifier <name1>:<name2>:... 输出中不包括指定限定符的列表。
  -nosince                         不包含 @since 信息
  -notimestamp                     不包含隐藏时间戳
  -nodeprecatedlist                不生成已过时的列表
  -notree                          不生成类分层结构
  -noindex                         不生成索引
  -nohelp                          不生成帮助链接
  -nonavbar                        不生成导航栏
  -serialwarn                      生成有关 @serial 标记的警告
  -tag <name>:<locations>:<header> 指定单个参数定制标记
  -taglet                          要注册的 Taglet 的全限定名称
  -tagletpath                      Taglet 的路径
  -charset <charset>               用于跨平台查看生成的文档的字符集。
  -helpfile <file>                 包含帮助链接所链接到的文件
  -linksource                      以 HTML 格式生成源文件
  -sourcetab <tab length>          指定源中每个制表符占据的空格数
  -keywords                        使程序包, 类和成员信息附带 HTML 元标记
  -stylesheetfile <path>           用于更改生成文档的样式的文件
  -docencoding <name>              指定输出的字符编码
1 个错误


javadoc -private -d . -doctitle "一个 Javadoc 生成的文档" -header "Documents" JavadocDemo.java -encoding UTF-8 -charset UTF-8
Java SE @

Java Platform, Standard Edition or Java SE is a widely used platform for development and deployment of portable code for desktop and server environments. Java SE uses the object-oriented Java programming language. It is part of the Java software-platform family. Java SE ** defines a wide range of general-purpose APIs** – such as Java APIs for the Java Class Library – and also includes the Java Language Specification and the Java Virtual Machine Specification. One of the most well-known[citation needed] implementations of Java SE is Oracle Corporation’s Java Development Kit (JDK).

Java Enterprise Edition (JEE) @

The Java Enterprise Edition contains a lot of extra tools and APIs for executing Java components inside a Java Enterprise Server. Examples of enterprise Java components are:

  • Servlets
  • Java Server Pages (JSP)
  • Java Server Faces (JSF)
  • Enterprise Java Beans (EJB)
  • Two-phase commit transactions
  • Java Message Service message queue APIs (JMS)
  • etc.
Java Micro Edition @

The Java Micro Edition is a version of Java targeted at small and embedded devices like PDAs, mobile phones etc.

Today (2015) the most popular Java platform to develop on for mobile phones is Google’s Android platform. Android does not use the Java Micro Edition, by the way. It uses its own subset of Java combined with a lot of Android specific components (APIs).

JavaFX @

JavaFX is a RIA (Rich Internet Application) framework. It is like Java Applets but with a lot more features, and with a completely different GUI API. JavaFX was inspired by Flex (Flash) and Silverlight for .NET (Microsoft).

学习建议 @

首先先搞懂【JavaSE】的部分,Swing 和 swt 部分就可以少看或不看,因为现在用的比较少。重点是看懂 Java 中的【面向对象、集合框架、JDBC、异常、IO、线程和网络编程】。 JavaSE搞定后再学习 Servlet、JSP, 然后才是经典的 Struts2、Hibernate 和 Spring,学习框架时重点理解框架的运行原理,甚至可以尝试自己写个轻量级的框架。理解运行原理的最好方法就是阅读源代码,还是要感谢 Java 中的开源项目。这期间还要多找各种大小的项目去完成,不一定要大,但是要精致,功能要完整,这样可以练习所学知识,并且可以在做项目中发现自己的知识体系中不足的地方。

  • 了解 Java 的运行环境。搞清楚 path 和 classpath 是干什么的,怎么在命令行进行编译,执行。知道 IDE 的各个按钮后面真正发生了什么事情。
  • 掌握 Java 的语法。搞清楚包,接口,类,继承这些基本概念。掌握多态,overwrite,死背下 IO 的接口,包括 InputStream/OutputStream 和 Writer/Reader,死背下网络编程和 GUI 编程的接口,死背 JDBC 接口。这一步,推荐的书是《 Thinking in Java》。
  • 掌握多线程编程。弄明白 ConcurrencyHashMap 是怎么实现的,搞清楚 synchronized 是怎么回事,弄明白为什么要有 Runnable 接口。在第二步和第三步掌握到 80% 的时候,你就可以考虑找工作了。
  • 在工作中体会一下设计模式。推荐《Java 与模式》这本书。看完里面的 Decorator, IO 接口你再也不会去死记硬背了。用的时候,根据 Adaptor 和 Decorator 的命名规则,自己临时推都推得出来。
  • 恶补数据结构。 搞清楚 LinkedList 和 ArrayList 的实现机制,了解它们的每一个接口的时间复杂度。同样的还有其他容器,Map 啊,Set 啊,都是一样的。栈,队列,二叉树,图贯穿编程始终,如果这一步你迈不过去,那就只能在低阶程序员里打转。
  • 如果有可能,最好对一些算法设计也有所涉猎。比如动态规则的思路,贪心算法,诸如 KMP 这种奇妙的算法等。这一步没有数据结构那么重要,学得好当然好,学不好也不用太挫败。

refs and see also


Java 环境的配置 @

Java Runtime Enviroment,是 Java 的运行环境,是面向 Java 程序的使用者,而不是开发者。


Java Development Kit. 简单的说 JDK 是面向开发人员使用的 SDK,它提供了 Java 的开发环境和运行环境。SDK 是 Software Development Kit 一般指软件开发包,可以包括函数库、编译程序等。

For Windows @

从官网下载 JDK:适用于所有操作系统的 Java 下载,需要注册。这是我的备份:http://whudoc.qiniudn.com/2016/java8.7z (230 MB)。里面包括 JDK 的安装包,以及一些示例程序。

安装后,把 C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.8.0_60\bin 添加到 %PATH%

For Linux @
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:webupd8team/java
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install oracle-java8-installer
Java 的 application launcher 和 javac 编译器 @
java:The Java Intepreter @
$ where java
C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.8.0_60\bin\java.exe

$ java
用法: java [-options] class [args...]
           (执行类)java [-options] -jar jarfile [args...]
           (执行 jar 文件)
    -d32            使用 32 位数据模型 (如果可用)
    -d64            使用 64 位数据模型 (如果可用)
    -server         选择 "server" VM
                    默认 VM 是 server.

    -cp             <目录和 zip/jar 文件的类搜索路径>
    -classpath      <目录和 zip/jar 文件的类搜索路径>
                    用 ; 分隔的目录, JAR 档案
                    和 ZIP 档案列表, 用于搜索类文件。
    -version        输出产品版本并退出
                    警告: 此功能已过时, 将在
    -showversion    输出产品版本并继续
    -jre-restrict-search | -no-jre-restrict-search
                    警告: 此功能已过时, 将在
                    在版本搜索中包括/排除用户专用 JRE
    -? -help        输出此帮助消息
    -X              输出非标准选项的帮助
    -esa | -enablesystemassertions
    -dsa | -disablesystemassertions
                    加载本机代理库 <libname>, 例如 -agentlib:hprof
                    另请参阅 -agentlib:jdwp=help 和 -agentlib:hprof=help
                    加载 Java 编程语言代理, 请参阅 java.lang.instrument
                    有关详细信息, 请参阅 http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/documentation/index.html。

为了保证 Java 可以靠谱地运行,最好把 JDK 那个 Java 的路径放在前面。(或者像我一样,把 JRE 那个 java 重命名为 _java)再设置一下 %CLASSPATH%: .;C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.8.0_60\lib\tools.jar

%JAVA_HOME%:C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.8.0_60

albertlatacz/java-repl: Read Eval Print Loop for Java,方便学习。

javac:The Java Compiler @
$ where javac
C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.8.0_60\bin\javac.exe

$ javac
用法: javac <options> <source files>
其中, 可能的选项包括:
  -g                            生成所有调试信息
  -g:none                       不生成任何调试信息
  -g:{lines,vars,source}        只生成某些调试信息
  -nowarn                       不生成任何警告
  -verbose                      输出有关编译器正在执行的操作的消息
  -deprecation                  输出使用已过时的 API 的源位置
  -classpath <路径>             指定查找用户类文件和注释处理程序的位置
  -cp <路径>                    指定查找用户类文件和注释处理程序的位置
  -sourcepath <路径>            指定查找输入源文件的位置
  -bootclasspath <路径>         覆盖引导类文件的位置
  -extdirs <目录>               覆盖所安装扩展的位置
  -endorseddirs <目录>          覆盖签名的标准路径的位置
  -proc:{none,only}             控制是否执行注释处理和/或编译。
  -processor <class1>[,<class2>,<class3>...] 要运行的注释处理程序的名称; 绕过默认的搜索进程
  -processorpath <路径>         指定查找注释处理程序的位置
  -parameters                   生成元数据以用于方法参数的反射
  -d <目录>                     指定放置生成的类文件的位置
  -s <目录>                     指定放置生成的源文件的位置
  -h <目录>                     指定放置生成的本机标头文件的位置
  -implicit:{none,class}        指定是否为隐式引用文件生成类文件
  -encoding <编码>              指定源文件使用的字符编码
  -source <发行版>              提供与指定发行版的源兼容性
  -target <发行版>              生成特定 VM 版本的类文件
  -profile <配置文件>           请确保使用的 API 在指定的配置文件中可用
  -version                      版本信息
  -help                         输出标准选项的提要
  -A关键字[=值]                 传递给注释处理程序的选项
  -X                            输出非标准选项的提要
  -J<标记>                      直接将 <标记> 传递给运行时系统
  -Werror                       出现警告时终止编译
  @<文件名>                     从文件读取选项和文件名

javap:The Java Class Disassembler

Hello World @
public class HelloJava {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        System.out.println("Hello World!");

保存成 HelloJava.java(一定要和类名一样),然后编译运行:

$ javac HelloJava.java              # 文件夹下是生成了 HelloJava.class
$ java  HelloJava                   # 会调用 HelloJava.class 里的 main 函数,注意这里不是 java HelloJava.class
Hello World!
Java Source and Class Directories @



example pom.xml @
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">



                                <transformer implementation="org.apache.maven.plugins.shade.resource.ManifestResourceTransformer">
解释一下 %PATH% 和 %CLASSPATH% @

PATH is an environment variable on Unix-like operating systems, DOS, OS/2, and Microsoft Windows, specifying a set of directories where executable programs are located. In general, each executing process or user session has its own PATH setting.



Classpath is a parameter in the Java Virtual Machine or the Java compiler that specifies the location of user-defined classes and packages. The parameter may be set either on the command-line, or through an environment variable.

The virtual machine searches for and loads classes in this order:

  • bootstrap classes: the classes that are fundamental to the Java Platform (comprising the public classes of the Java Class Library, and the private classes that are necessary for this library to be functional).
  • extension classes: packages that are in the extension directory of the JRE or JDK, jre/lib/ext/ user-defined packages and libraries

By default 【only the packages of the JDK standard API and extension packages】 are accessible without needing to set where to find them. The path for all user-defined packages and libraries must be set in the command-line (or in the Manifest associated with the Jar file containing the classes).

# Windows
java    -classpath      D:\myprogram                        org.mypackage.HelloWorld
# Linux
java    -cp             /home/user/myprogram                org.mypackage.HelloWorld


  • java is a java application launcher, a type of sdkTool (A command-line tool, such as javac, javadoc, or apt)
  • -classpath D:\myprogram sets the path to the packages used in the program (on Linux, -cp /home/user/myprogram) and
  • org.mypackage.HelloWorld is the name of the main class

还可以设置 JAR 包(不是 JAR 包的 dirname,JAR 包本身就是一个目录的打包):

java -classpath D:\myprogram;D:\myprogram\lib\supportLib.jar org.mypackage.HelloWorld

还可以在 Manifest 里面指定。

IntelliJ Idea 的使用 ♥️ @

首先,安装 Vim 插件 (in settings – plugin)。

然后,试试 HelloWorld。

Survival Guide 的笔记 @
  • 支持多语言

  • 有 Commnity 版本和 Ultimate 版本,前者开源(是一个 OSS)。

  • Android Studio 是 Google 在 Community 版本上为 Android 开发而定制的

  • VS 的 Project 就是 IntelliJ 的 Module,IntelliJ 的 Libraries 可能是一个 Jar 包,或者什么的

  • 工程是靠 .idea 文件夹组织起来的,目录就是结构

  • Facets ['fæsɪt] @

    Frameworks such as Spring require certain configurations, libraries, dependencies and technologies. A Facet is a way to group all this into a manageable component that is then used by IntelliJ IDEA. You can add Facets here. For instance, when creating a Spring module with a new project, it adds the Spring Facet.

  • Artifacts @

    Artifacts, or otherwise known as output generated by your project. This is where you tell IntelliJ IDEA to create JAR’s, WAR’s and other types of artifacts for you. Once you define them you can then access them from the Build menu.

  • Code Generation @

    File Templates are the fastest way to create new files (Cmd+Ctrl+N on OSX when inside a file or Cmd+N when in Project Window).

    Cmd+N on a class allows you to override methods, implement methods, etc. It’s context sensitive

    Along with File templates, you also have Live Templates which are interactive snippets. You can access them via Preferences | Live Templates


    • 文件模板
    • 自动补全
    • 快捷键
  • Navigation @

    Very rich navigation and pretty much aligned feature-wise with ReSharper. If there’s one key to remember that’s Double-Shift (IntelliJ IDEA 13+): Search Everywhere

    Check out the Navigation tutorial for more information.


    Shift-Shift 快捷键牛逼在于,什么都可以搜…… 刚才试了一下搜“Vim”,可以在这里直接/打开关闭 Vim。好方便!

  • Hit Alt+Enter to see what IntelliJ IDEA offers (Intentions):

  • Refactoring 就是重命名什么的,Java 的类 Refactoring 后,文件名也会自动修改。

  • VCS 和 local history,似乎也不错

  • 有数据库支持
  • 设置可以保存导出

多个 IntelliJ IDEA 实例 ♥️ @

Press Ctrl+Alt+S

Choose Appearance & Behavior, then System Settings, check radio button: Open project in new window.

refs and see also

VM 启动设置 @

把 idea64.exe.vmoptions(C:\Program Files (x86)\JetBrains\IntelliJ IDEA Community Edition 2016.2.4\bin\idea64.exe.vmoptions




C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\JetBrains 然后把这个启动项里的快捷方式设置到 idea64.exe。

Settings – Editor – Live Templates @


  • fori,for i
  • itar,iterate array
  • itli,iterate list
  • itve,iterate vector
  • itco,iterate collection
  • iten,iterate enumeration
  • ritar,reverse iterate array
  • iter,iterate
  • itit
  • ittok


  • geti,get instance
  • ifn,if null
  • inst,instance of
  • lazy,lazy init(if null,new it)
  • lst,last element of array
  • mn/mx,less/greater
  • psvm,public static void main
  • toar,collection -> array


  • serr,System.err.println(“…”)
  • sout
  • soutf,printf
  • soutm,method
  • soutv


  • psf,public static final
  • psfi,public static final int
  • psfs,public static final String
  • St,String
  • thr,throw new


  • B,{}(brace)
  • P,()(paren)
  • C,Callable
  • I,iterable
  • RL,readwrite lock 之 read lock
  • WL,readwrite lock 之 write lock


  • dep(dependency)
  • pl(plugin)
  • repo(repository)
Settings – Editor – General – Postfix Completion @
  • b.!
  • b.cast
  • b.assert
  • b.else
  • arg.field
  • values.for
  • num.fori
  • expr.par,parantheses
  • arr.stream
  • val.switch
  • try(try-catch)
  • twr(try-with-resource)
Maven Configure @

Maven 简单来说是一个项目管理工具,被认为是 Ant 的替代品或者继任者。事实上 Maven 的功能要远远超出 Ant,它不仅仅提供编译的脚本,更是在整 个项目周期中提供测试,发布,文档生成等功能,并且有着独特的依赖性管理方法。但是强大的功能的代价就是复杂的使用方法,第一次使用 Maven 往往需要将 近半个小时的时间(国内网速)来下载一个本地的依赖库,这无疑会使很多开发人员“知难而退”。虽然广受诟病,一个不争的事实就是 Maven逐渐代替了 Ant,使用 Maven 也成了 Java 开发人员的一个必要技能。

比起 Eclipse 通通放进右键菜单的行为,IntelliJ IDEA 有着单独的窗口可以完成 Maven 的操作。你可以针对不同 Module 进行 Clean Compile Package Install 等操作,各个 Plug-in 的操作也一清二楚。


Maven Module @

For the Maven projects IntelliJ IDEA provides a dedicated module type. For each Maven Module, IntelliJ IDEA creates a pom.xml file. So doing, a Maven Module can be created either with the basic pom.xml file, or from a certain pattern called Maven archetype.

IntelliJ 支持 pom.xml 的编辑代码高亮和补全。

打开 pom 文件,就可以导入 maven 工程。 

Maven 与 IntelliJ IDEA 的完美结合 - OPEN 开发经验库 @

创建好后的目录结构如下图,IDEA 创建了 src/main/resources(自动创建)、 src/main/java(手动创建)、src/main/test(手动创建)、以及 pom.xml 文件(自动创建)。

Maven – Guide to Mirror Settings @

Maven 原来的环境变量是 MAVEN_HOME,但 maven2 更新很大和原来不兼容,于是环境变量变成了 M2_HOME(应该是 MAVEN2_HOME 太长了),配置文件有如下几个位置:



这是 IntelliJ IDEA 自带(bundle)的:

    C:\Program Files (x86)\JetBrains\IntelliJ IDEA Community Edition 2016.2.4\plugins\maven\lib\maven2\conf\settings.xml



maven3 和 maven2 兼容,所以环境变量依旧是 M2_HOME


记得用 IntelliJ IDEA 修改 settings.xml(有错误检查),添加 mirror 节点,用阿里云的 mirror 站:


Maven 的两个概念:坐标和依赖。

POM:Project Object Model。

archetype,['ɑrkə'taɪp],n. 原型

dependency mediation(依赖调解)

  • 近者优先
  • 先申明优先

Maven 仓库

  • 本地仓库
  • 远程仓库
  • 中央仓库
  • 私服
  • 公共仓库:central、JBoss、Java.net


  • initialize,初始化
  • compile,编译
  • test,测试
  • package,打包
  • integrateionTest,集成测试
  • deploy,部署


  • clean(pre-clean,clean,post-clean)
  • default(validate,intialize,generate-sources,process-sources,generate-resources,process-resoures,compile,process-classes,generate-test-sources,etc)
  • site



refs and see also

Vim 模拟器的配置 @


    <shortcut-conflict owner="vim">
        <text>ctrl pressed V</text>
    <shortcut-conflict owner="ide">
        <text>ctrl pressed P</text>

建议除了 Control-V 其余都用 IJ 的快捷键。

好好学习,点滴做起。这是每次启动的时候,弹出的 tips。 @

(唯一蛋疼的是,用了 Vim 模拟,冲突的快捷键要手动配置,而我懒得配置)

  • Ctrl-Alt-S 打开设置

  • Ctrl-Shift-Alt-S 打开项目结构设置区

  • To quickly see the documentation for a class or method at caret, press Ctrl+Q (View | Quick Documentation).

  • IntelliJ IDEA 是一个没有 Ctrl + S 的 IDE,所以每次修改完代码你只要管着运行或者调试即可,无需担心保存或者丢失代码。

  • To navigate to the declaration of a class, method or variable used somewhere in the code, position the caret at the usage and press Ctrl+B (Navigate | Declaration). You can also click the mouse on usages with the Ctrl key pressed to jump to declarations.

  • To try it, place the caret at the symbol you want to rename, and press Shift+F6 (Refactor | Rename). Type the new name in the popup window that appears, or select one of the suggested names, and press Enter.

  • You may easily override methods of the base class by pressing Ctrl+O (Code | Override Methods). To implement methods of the interfaces that the current class implements (or of the abstract base class), use Ctrl+I (Code | Implement methods).

  • The SmartType code completion greatly helps to find methods and variables that are suitable in the current context, by analyzing the expected type of the whole expression. So doing, IntelliJ IDEA pinpoints the top five most suitable results and highlights them on the blue background.

  • When using Code Completion, you can accept the currently highlighted selection in the popup list with Tab key. Unlike accepting with the Enter key, the selected name will overwrite the rest of the name to the right of the caret. This can be especially useful for replacing one method or variable name with another.

    and press Ctrl+Shift+空格:

    The SmartType completion also works after the return keyword, in an assignment, in an argument list of a method call and other places.

  • Did you know that you can close tabs in the editor and the tool windows of IntelliJ IDEA without actually using the context menu commands? It is enough to point with your mouse cursor to a tab to be closed, and click the middle mouse button, or just use the Shift+click combination.

  • Using Alt+Insert (Code | Generate) in the editor, you can easily generate getter and setter methods for any fields of your class.

    getter, setter, ctor, etc

  • To open your browser with documentation for the element at the editor’s caret, press Shift+F1 (View | External Documentation).

    You must have the path to your browser set in the File | Settings | Web Browsers options and paths to documentation files added to your project (File | Project Structure…) to use this feature.

  • The CodeCompletion feature can suggest a name for a variable when you declare it. For example, start typing private FileOutputStream and press Ctrl+空格.

  • tips

refs and see also

refs and see also


Java 101 @
int weight = 255;
final double PI = 3.141592653;      // 不能再次被赋值
final double E;
E = 2.71828;                        // 但可以定义的时候不赋值

System.out.println("Hello World!");
System.out.printf("pi = %.5f\n", Math.PI); // => pi = 3.14159
String.format("%s may prefer %s.", "Or you", "String.format()");
// Or you may prefer String.format().

// 单行注释,line comment

    block comment
// @version
// @author
// @param
// @return
keywords @
abstract   continue   for          new         switch
assert     default    if           package     synchronized
boolean    do         goto         private     this
break      double     implements   protected   throw
byte       else       import       public      throws
case       enum       instanceof   return      transient
catch      extends    int          short       try
char       final      interface    static      void
class      finally    long         strictfp    volatile
const      float      native       super       while


refs and see also

字面量和变量 @


  • IntegerLiteral
  • FloatingPointLiteral
  • BooleanLiteral
  • CharacterLiteral
  • StringLiteral
  • NullLiteral

八进制、十六进制,Long,指数 的表示和 C++ 一致:07,0xf,12345678901234L,5.12e2,5.12E2,5.2F,5.2f

Java 7 还增加了 0b10101010 这样的二进制整数。

浮点数除以 0,得到正/负无穷大。整数除以 0,会抛出异常。



  • 基本数据类型(primitive type)
    • 数值型
      • 整数类型(byte,short,int,long)
      • 浮点类型(float,double)
    • 字符型(char)
    • 布尔型(boolean)
  • 引用数据类型(reference type)
    • 类(class)
    • 接口(interface)
    • 数组(vector)
    • null

char 是 unicode 字符,两个字节。

Java 里没有 bool 这个关键词,是 boolean 和 Boolean。

Java 里的类型都是 signed。

float -> double -> BigDecimal

byte    b   =   3;
int     i   =   b;

double  y   =   2.7;
int     x   =   (int)y;


        char --+
byte -> short ---+--> int -> long -> float -> double
// 类型提升
byte a = 40;
byte b = 50;
byte c = 60;
int  d = a*b/c;         // 'a*b/c' 自动提升到了 int

byte b = 50;
b =  b * 2;             // ERROR: b*2 提升到了 int,赋值失败
b =  (byte)(b * 2);     // 这样就对了

"Hello!" + 'a' + 7;     // Hello!a7
'a' + 7 + "Hello!";     // 104Hello!


算术运算符 @
+   -   *   /   %   ++  --
赋值运算符 @

其实是赋值表达式(assignment expression):

x = y = z = 5;

有时候这被认为是一个 side-effect。比如这篇文章:为什么我不喜欢赋值表达式 - weakish - SegmentFault

比较运算符 @

true / false

和 C++ 一样的有:


除此之外,还有 instanceof 运算符:

"World" instanceof String   // true
逻辑运算符 @
&&          // 短路
||          // 短路

因为 Java 没有二进制的处理,所以 &&& 的区别不是【“二进制”与】和【“逻辑”与】,而是【“不短路”与】和【“短路”与】。

流程控制 @
if @
if ( COND ) {

if ( COND1 ) {
} else if( COND2 ) {
} else if( COND3 ) {
} else {


y = x>0 ? x : -x;
switch @
switch( EXPR ) {
case VAL1:
case VAL2:
case VAL3:

byte, short, char, int, String (since Java 7)

while & do-while @
while( COND ) {
do {
} while( COND );
for @
for( int n = 0; n < 100; ++n ) {
    System.out.println( "tick " + n );
String[] books = {"AOAPC", "SICP", "POSIX"};
for (String book : books) {
    book = "NULL";
    System.out.println(book);   // "NULL"
System.out.println(book[0]);    // "AOAPC"
break, continue @

除了和 C++ 一样的部分,Java 还提供 break 某一个标签的功能:

class ContinueWithLabelDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {

        String searchMe = "Look for a substring in me";
        String substring = "sub";
        boolean foundIt = false;

        int max = searchMe.length() -

        for (int i = 0; i <= max; i++) {
            int n = substring.length();
            int j = i;
            int k = 0;
            while (n-- != 0) {
                if (searchMe.charAt(j++) != substring.charAt(k++)) {
                    continue test;
            foundIt = true;
                break test;
        System.out.println(foundIt ? "Found it" : "Didn't find it");
数组 @
数组基础 @

Java Array Literals

// 这都一样
int arr[]   = new int[10];
int []arr   = new int[10];
int[] arr   = new int[10];
for (int i=0; i < arr.length; i++) {
    arr[i] = i;
// int arr;                             // 这样绝对是错误的

// 可以初始为 null。与 C++ 不同的是,Java 可以重新引用,而且引用可以为空
int arr[] = null;
arr = new int[10];

// 这也是一样的
int days[] = new int[]{ 1, 3, 5 };      // 这样就不要手动写元素个数了(反而容易出错)
int days[] = { 1, 3, 5 };

// 二位数组也是可以得
int grid[][] = new int[3][4];
int[] grid[] = new int[3][4];
int grid[][] = new int[][] {{ 1, 2, 3, 4 },
                            { 1, 2, 3, 4 },
                            { 1, 2, 3, 4 }  };
int grid[][] = new int[3][];            // 3 个 row,每个 row 多少 col 还不一定

int [3][] 和 C++ 恰好相对。因为 C++ 内存布局。

Java 会进行边界检查。(所以效率相对不高,所以安全,所以健壮。)

数组相关操作 @
System.arraycopy() @
System.arraycopy( src, 0, dst, 0, num );    // 从 src 位置 0 开始,复制 num 个到,dst 0 开始
Arrays.sort() @
int nums[] = ...;
Arrays.sort( nums );
Arrays.fill() @
int nums[] = ...;
Arrays.fill( nums, 250 );
Arrays @
type[] copyOf(type[] orig, int length);
type[] copyOfRange(type[] orig, int length);
Arrays.equals() // exactly same entries
方法与方法的重载 @
public class Func {
    public static void drawRectangle(int x, int y) {
        // 函数可以 return 返回值或 void。(当然要和声明的一样)
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        drawRectangle(1, 2);
// 重载
class MethodOverloading {
    void receive(int i) {
    void receive(double d) {
    void receive(String s) {
面向对象 @
  • 继承(Inheritance)
  • 封装(Encapsulation)
  • 多态(Polymorphism)
public class Man {
    private String name;
    private int height;
    private int weight;
    public Man () { }
    public Man (String name, int height, int weight) {
        this.name = name;
        this.height = height;
        this.weight = weight;
    public void doSth() {
        System.out.println("height" + height);

Man p1 = new Man();


  • 成员的访问控制:private, default, protected, public
  • 类的访问控制:public 和 default
变量的初始值 @
  • 0, 0L, 0.0F: Byte, Short, Int, Long, float, double
  • \u0000: char
  • false: boolean
  • all reference type(引用): null
对象的比较 @
String str1 = new String("123");
String str2 = new String("123");
String str3 = str1;

// 这里比的是 reference 是否在一个对象
if (str1 == str2) { // false
} else {

if (str1 == str3) { // true
} else {

// 如果要比较值得话,用 String 的 equals 方法
if (str1.equals(str2)) {    // true

重写对象的 equals 方法(equals(rhs))大致有如下几个步骤:

  • 是否 ==,即引用同一对象?
  • rhs 为 null?返回 false(有对象那就不是 null)。
  • 运行时类(用 getClass() 获取)相等?
  • 最后才是你的逻辑
匿名对象的使用 @
new Cylinder().setCylinder(2.5, 5, 3.14);
getSOmeOne( new MyClass() );                            // 这个和 C++ 一样的。

和 C++ 下其实类似。只是第一种情况,C++ 要多加一个括号:

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
class C {
    int x = 0;
    C(int x) : x(x) {}
    void fun() { cout << x << "\n"; }

int main() {
    (new C(5))->fun(); // "5",注意:有内存泄漏
    return 0;
CTor @

跟 C++ 一样,可以重载,不能有返回值(返回的肯定这个类的实例啊),而且编译器会提供默认的 ctor。

public class Sample {
    private int x;
    public Sample() {           // no arg
    public Sample(int x) {      // one arg ctor
        this.x = x;
    public int Sample(int x) {  // not ctor
        return x++;

This 句柄。

参数传递 @


  • 基本数据类型的参数传递,比如 int,是按值传递。这是 value semantic。
  • 引用类型的参数传递:数组、除 String 以外的其他所有类型的对象。
垃圾回收机制 @

只能用 new 申请内存,Java 承包了内存释放和垃圾回收。垃圾回收减免了两种常见错误:【内存泄漏】和【无效内存的引用】。


  • System.gc();
  • Runtime.getRuntime().gc();


  • 用直接量 String str = "Okay" 而不是 String str = new String("Okay")

  • 用 StringBuilder 和 stringBuffer 拼接字符串

  • 释放没用的变量

    public void info() {
        Object obj = new Object();
        obj = null;                 // 不可达,于是会尽早被释放
        // ...                      // 这里就可能有更充足的内存资源
                                    // 在外面的话,就无所谓了,都一样
  • 减少静态变量的使用,避免在 for 循环中 new 对象。

  • 缓存

  • 不要画蛇添足地使用 finalize

  • 大量的数组元素,可以考虑 Softreference

强引用、软引用、弱引用、虚引用 @
  • StrongReference(所指对象不会被回收)

  • SoftReference(内存不够,可能会被回收)

  • WeakReference

    import java.lang.ref.WeakReference;
    String str = "A String";
    WeakReference<String> wr = new WeakReference<String>(str);
    str = null;
    System.out.println(wr.get()); // A String

    和 C++ 的 weak_ptr(smart pointer) 似乎一样。

  • PhantomReference

Static @

和 C++ 的完全一致,除了 Java 的静态成员变量可以直接在类里面初始化。

而且,这是变量的定义,而不像 C++ 那样,只是声明。 C++ 的静态成员必须要在类外面定义和初始化(除了 int 类型)。

class American {
    static String country = "美国";
    static {
        ...                         // 【静态代码块】,在类被载入时执行
    public SomeStaticFunction() {
        ...                         // 【静态函数】,在类实例化对象的时候执行。注意:没有返回值
System.out.println("American is "+American.country);

public static void main(String[] args) { } 是静态的。所以执行一个类的 main 函数的时候,不能用 this。

类的继承 @


C++ 里面用 class D : public B { ... };,Java 里用 class D extends B { ... },可以看到只是把 : 变成 extends 而已,大同小异。

外,注意 C++ 类定义的大括号后面有 ; 而 Java 的没有。因为 C++ 允许立马定义一个类变量(为了兼容 C),所以语法有点怪。

// SuperClass
class SuperClass extends Object {
    SuperClass() {

// ChildClass1
class ChildClass1 extends SuperClass {
    ChildClass1() {
        super();                            // 调用 SuperClass 的构造。但是,这句话可以省略

// ChildClass2
class ChildClass2 extends ChildClass1 {
    ChildClass2() {

子类可以重写父类的函数,也可以修改访问权限。但是不能把 public 函数重写为 private。

继承 v.s. 组合:【继承破坏了封装。】

抽象类和接口 @


  • abstract
  • 不能被实例化
abstract class DemoAbstract {
    abstract int abstractMethod(int a, int b);              // 都是定义接口,所以没有函数体。

因为不能实例化,也就无所谓访问控制了(public、private 什么的)。


// 接口
public interface Runner {
    int Id = 1;                 // public static final
    void run();

// 接口也可以继承
interface Animal extends Runner {
    void breathe();

interface LandAnimal implements Animal {
    public void breathe() {         // 既然是 implements,那就要把函数定义出来

// 实例
class Fish implements Animal {
    public void run() {
    public void breathe() {

类可以同时 extends 和 implements,注意要先 extendsimplements(其实只有这样才合理)。

没有把接口的 method 都实现,那它还是一个抽象类,不能实例化对象。

public interface Output
    // 接口里定义的成员变量只能是常量
    int MAX_CACHE_LINE = 50;
    // 接口里定义的普通方法只能是 public 的抽象方法
    void out();
    void getData(String msg);
    // 在接口中定义默认方法,需要使用 default 修饰
    default void print(String... msgs) {
        for (String msg : msgs) {
    // 在接口中定义默认方法,需要使用 default 修饰
    default void test() {
        System.out.println("默认的 test() 方法");
    // 在接口中定义类方法,需要使用 static 修饰
    static String staticTest() {
        return "接口里的类方法";
Lambda 匿名函数 @

Java 8 在 java.util.function 包下定义了许多函数式接口,比如:

  • XxxFunction:有 apply() 抽象方法
  • XxxConsumer:有 accept() 抽象方法
  • XxxSupplier:有 getAsXxx() 抽象方法
  • XxxPredicate:有 test() 抽象方法
对象的多态性 @
万物之本:Object 类 @

或多或少继承了 java.land.Object

Objects 类中主要包括 clone()finalize()equals()toString()。子类可以重写这些函数。

但是不可重写 getClass,notify,notifyAll,wait 等方法,因为这些都是 final 类型。

getClass(), toString()

public class Instance {
    public String toString() {
        return "string of Instance instance.\n";
System.out.println(new Instance());

和 C++ 多态的使用没有太大的区别。

public class Employee extends Object   { }
public class Manager  extends Employee { }
Employee e = new Manager();                     // 合法

唯一可能的不同是,Interface 也可看成一种“基类”。用起来也像是“多态”。

异常 @



  • runtime exception: java.lang.RuntimeException 或者 java.lang.Error
  • checked exception: java.lang.Exception
public class ExceptionalClass {
    public void method1() throws CheckedException {
        throw new CheckedException( "Wrong..." );
    public void method2( String arg ) {
        if( arg == null ) {
            throw new NullPointerException( "Wrong..." );           // 这是 runtime exception,不用在声明时加上 throws xxxException
    public void method3() throws CheckedException {

    public static void main( String[] args ) {
        exceptionalClass example = new ExceptionalClass();
        try {
            example.method1();                                      // method1 和 method3 可能会 throw CheckedException,
            example.method3();                                      // 所以【一定】要放在 try-catch 块里
        } catch( CheckedExcetipn ex ) {
        example.method2( null );                                    // 而且不用放在 try-catch 里面

checked 异常,要直接在函数定义的时候就考虑到,会直接“体现”在签名上(交给别人处理异常),或者放在 try-catch 里(自己处理掉异常)。

Runtime 的异常则“不必”。

                     /   \
                    /     \
                Error   Exception
                  /      /    \
                 /      /      \
                            Runtime Exception


FileInputStream fis = null;
try {
    fis = new FileInputStream("a.txt");
catch (IOException ioe) {
    // return语句强制方法返回
    // 使用 exit 来退出虚拟机
    // System.exit(1);
finally {
    // 关闭磁盘文件,回收资源
    if (fis != null) {
        try {
        catch (IOException ioe) {
    System.out.println("执行 finally 块里的资源回收!");

AutoClosable,Closable 接口。

public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
    try (
            // 声明、初始化两个可关闭的资源
            // try 语句会自动关闭这两个资源。
            BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(new FileReader("AutoCloseTest.java"));
            PrintStream ps = new PrintStream(new FileOutputStream("a.txt"));
    ) {
        // 使用两个资源

各种 IO 类,JDBC 的 Connection、Statement 类,都支持这个。

这个很像 C 语言中 int i; for( i = 0; ...) {...}for( int i; ...) {...} 的转变。

自己定义 Exception:

public class AuctionException extends Exception {
    // 无参数的构造器
    public AuctionException() { }
    // 带一个字符串参数的构造器
    public AuctionException(String msg) {

Catch all… 这个好牛逼……但是推荐不要这样:

try {
catch (Throwable t) {


refs and see also


目录树。用 . 来分隔目录,就避免了【是 /?还是 \?的麻烦】。

两点保证包机制:1)源文件里使用 package 语句;2)class 文件在目录下。


package pkg;

// import,然后直接使用
import pkg.sub.Class;
Class c1 = new Class();

// 不 import,用全名
Class c2 = new pkg.sub.Class();
// static import
import static java.lang.System.*;
import static java.lang.Math.*;
package ocean.javatest;

public class Person {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        System.out.println("I'm a Person.");
# 编译
$ javac -d . Person.java                  # 路径下生成了 `ocean/javatest` 子文件夹。以及 Person.class 文件。

# 看看目录下有啥
$ find .

# 运行 Person 类
$ java ocean.javatest.Person
I'm a Person.

Java 提供的常用包:

  • java.lang:String、Math、System、Thread(无需 import)
  • java.util:Arrays、List、Set
  • java.net:网络编程
  • java.io:输入输出
  • java.text:格式化
  • java.sql:JDBC 数据库编程
  • java.awtjava.swing:GUI 编程
Jar 包 @

java archive file,看上去,用法和 tar 也基本雷同。

$ where jar
C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.8.0_60\bin\jar.exe

$ jar
用法: jar {ctxui}[vfmn0PMe] [jar-file] [manifest-file] [entry-point] [-C dir] files ...
    -c  创建新档案
    -t  列出档案目录
    -x  从档案中提取指定的 (或所有) 文件
    -u  更新现有档案
    -v  在标准输出中生成详细输出
    -f  指定档案文件名
    -m  包含指定清单文件中的清单信息
    -n  创建新档案后执行 Pack200 规范化
    -e  为捆绑到可执行 jar 文件的独立应用程序
    -0  仅存储; 不使用任何 ZIP 压缩
    -P  保留文件名中的前导 '/' (绝对路径) 和 ".." (父目录) 组件
    -M  不创建条目的清单文件
    -i  为指定的 jar 文件生成索引信息
    -C  更改为指定的目录并包含以下文件
        如果任何文件为目录, 则对其进行递归处理。
        清单文件名, 档案文件名和入口点名称的指定顺序
        与 'm', 'f''e' 标记的指定顺序相同。

示例 1: 将两个类文件归档到一个名为 classes.jar 的档案中:
        jar cvf classes.jar Foo.class Bar.class

示例 2: 使用现有的清单文件 'mymanifest' 并将 foo/ 目录中的所有文件归档到 'classes.jar' 中:
        jar cvfm classes.jar mymanifest -C foo/ .

可以对目录下的 class 文件进行压缩打包。

$ jar cf  test.jar test                 # test 子目录 -> test.jar
$ jar tf  test.jar                      # 列出目录
$ jar xf  test.jar                      # 解压

// verbose 版本
$ jar cvf test.jar test
$ jar tvf test.jar
$ jar xvf test.jar

c: cerate, t: tree (directory listing), x: extract

可以用解压软件如 7-zip 来解压 jar 包。

JAR 和普通压缩的区别在于,它包含了一个 META-INF/MANIFEST.MF 的清单文件。


  • 安全
  • 压缩了,容量小
  • 封装在一起,版本可控
  • 可移植

其实,一个 *.jar 文件,就是一个目录的 class 文件。

String 和 StringBuffer @

都在 java.lang 中,不需要 import。

String s;               // String 是 immutable 的
s.replace("j", "i");    // 这只会返回新对象,而不会修改 s

StringBuffer sb;
sb.append("C");         // sb 被改变了

一些基本的 API:


    equals( STR )
    equalsIgnoreCase( STR )
    indexOf( STR )

String strs[] = str.split(" ");


    append( STR )
    delete( start, end )
    deleteCharAt( index )
    setCharAt( index, C )
    lastIndexOf( STR )
    replace( int start, int end, STR )
    subString( start )
    subString( start, end )
    insert( index, STR )
    setLength( SIZE )

调用 stringbuffer 的 equals 的时候,你可能需要的是 sb.toString().equals( rhs.toString() )

可以用 instanceof 关键字判断能否正确。

String、StringBuffer,StringBuilder 都实现了 CharSequence,可以看成是一个字符串的协议接口。

StringBuilder 的效率更高,但是线程不安全。 StringBuffer 线程安全。(记忆:Buffer is safer -> bis,缓冲保平安。

基本数据类型的包装类 @
类型 包装类
boolean Boolean
byte Byte
char Character
short Short
int Int
long Long
float Float
double Double

还提供一些类似 C++ 中 <climits> 里提供的常量:

Float.SIZE              // #bits

可以看到,因为 Java 有包装类这个概念,这些变量命名都很规范,比 C++ 那个好使。更好使的是 autoboxing 和 autounboxing。

Integer i =  5;
int i2 = i;

Object obj = true;


  • parse 函数:parseXxx(String s)
  • 构造函数:Xxx(String s)
  • compare 函数:compare(Type v1, Type v2)

Java 8 增加了无符号运算:(原来 Java 的变量类型都是有符号的)

  • static String toUnsignedString()
  • static Xxx parseUnsignedXxx()
  • static int CompareUnsignedXxx()

我觉得 Java 都用有符号类型,其实才是大智慧。不知道搞这几个新的东西有啥用。

集合类,Collection & Iterator,Java 中的集合 @

很多人用 C++ 基本只会用 vector,却不知道 map, hashmap, unordered_map, queue, stack, deque, priority_queue, set, unordered_set 以及 <algorithms> 头文件下的许多方法(我好喜欢 copyostream_iterator),导致写得代码又臭又长。

所以,这部分太特么重要了。搞定了这部分,对 Java 语法的掌握才落了地。 C++ 的容器对应 Java 的集合。主要有下面几类:

  • HashSet: equals(), hashCode(), HashSet s = new HashSet(); s.add(new Object());
  • LinkedHashSet:性能低,但迭代访问效率高,虽然是 linked list 来存储,但作为 set,不允许重复元素。
  • TreeSet,comparator() 返回比较准则,如果用的默认的,返回 null; Object first/last()Object lower/higher(Object e)

    subset(), headSet(), tailSet()

感觉提供的集合的选择比 C++ 丰富,而且接口更多。但并不代表使用难度(使用而言的复杂度)更大,因为【一个集合或者说容器,所提供的操作和性能都是不言而喻、顾名思义的。】比如一个 Stack、Queue,不管什么语言,提供的接口都有那几个啊,一个 TreeHashSet 一眼也能看出来它的性能相比 HashSet 有啥么区别。

外,从命名上,C++ 用了 C 的下划线风格:priority_queue,Java 用了 CamelCase:PriorityQueue

下面这篇文章对 Java 的 Collection 有一个整体而概括的说明:

The Interface and Class Hierarchy Diagram of Java Collections @
  1. Collection vs Collections @

    First of all, “Collection” and “Collections” are two different concepts. As you will see from the hierarchy diagram below, “Collection” is a root interface in the Collection hierarchy but “Collections” is a class which provide static methods to manipulate on some Collection types.

  2. Class hierarchy of Collection @

    The following diagram demonstrates class hierarchy of Collection.


  3. Class hierarchy of Map @

    Here is class hierarchy of Map.

    简单地说就是:HasaMap、LinkedHashMap、TreeHashMap 和 HashTable 都实现了 Map 接口。

  4. Summary of classes @

    还有一点可以说说的是,Java 的集合的成员可以是不同类型的(反正都当成 Object 类型)。如果要固定类型,可以用泛型(类同 C++ 的模板)。

  5. Code Example @

    The following is a simple example to illustrate some collection types:

    List<String> a1 = new ArrayList<String>();
    System.out.println("ArrayList Elements");
    System.out.print("\t" + a1 + "\n");
    List<String> l1 = new LinkedList<String>();
    System.out.println("LinkedList Elements");
    System.out.print("\t" + l1 + "\n");
    Set<String> s1 = new HashSet<String>(); // or new TreeSet() will order the elements;
    System.out.println("Set Elements");
    System.out.print("\t" + s1 + "\n");
    Map<String, String> m1 = new HashMap<String, String>(); // or new TreeMap() will order based on keys
    m1.put("Windows", "2000");
    m1.put("Windows", "XP");
    m1.put("Language", "Java");
    m1.put("Website", "programcreek.com");
    System.out.println("Map Elements");
    System.out.print("\t" + m1);


    ArrayList Elements
        [Program, Creek, Java, Java]
    LinkedList Elements
        [Program, Creek, Java, Java]
    Set Elements
        [tutorial, Creek, Program, Java]
    Map Elements
        {Windows=XP, Website=programcreek.com, Language=Java}

refs and see also

Vector & Enumeration

int a = System.in.read();           // read a char
Vector v = new Vector();
v.addElement( new Integer(a-'0') );

Enumeration en = v.elements();
while (en.hasMoreElements()) {
    Integer i = (Integer) en.nextElement();
boolean                 add                 ( Object o );
boolean                 remove              ( Object o );

int                     size                ();
boolean                 isEmpty             ();
boolean                 contains            ( Object o );
Iterator                iterator            ();

boolean                 containsAll         ( Collection c );
boolean                 addAll              ( Collection c );
void                    clear               ();
void                    removeAll           ( Collection c );       // A \ C
void                    retainAll           ( Collection c );       // A & C

Object[]                toArray             ();
Object[]                toArray             ( Object []a );
Iterator iter = new ArrayList().iterator();
while (iter.hasNext()) {
   Integer i = (Integer) iter.next();

Java 的 Comparable 接口,里面定义了一个 compareTo(Object obj) 的方法。常用的类都实现了这个接口。TreeSet 里面的元素,必然要实现这个接口,否则在比较的时候会抛出异常。而且啊,不同类型的对象怎么比较呢?所以 TreeSet 里面只能添加同一种类型。

在 new TreeSet 的时候,可以把 compareTo 的 Lambda 函数传入。

TreeSet ts = new TreeSet((o1 , o2) -> {
    M m1 = (M)o1;
    M m2 = (M)o2;
    // 根据 M 对象的 age 属性来决定大小,age 越大,M 对象反而越小
    return m1.age > m2.age ? -1 : m1.age < m2.age ? 1 : 0;


List 是有序的所以有一些有序的方法:

  • add(index, elem)
  • addAll(index, collection)
  • Object get(index)
  • int indexOf(obj),因为可能重复,所以这其实是第一个元素的 index
  • int lastIndexOf(obj)
  • set(index, obj)
  • remove(index)

ArrayList() 和 Vector()

ArrayList 线程不安全,Vector 安全,所以前者效率低。

Vector 的子类有 Stack,提供 push、pop、peek

固定长度的 List 有 Arrays.asList("...", "...", ...);

这样的 list 在 add 和 remove 的时候都会抛出异常(UnSupportedOperationException)

Queue 呢,有

  • add(elem)
  • element(),队首
  • 还有挺多接口,挺无聊的

对集合的操作,可以用 Collections,

  • Collections.shuffle
  • Collections.reverse
  • Collections.sort(list),
  • Collections.sort(list, comparator)
  • Collections.swap(list, i1, i2)
  • Collections.rotate(list, distance)
  • Collections.binarySearch
  • Collections.max
Hashtable 和 Properties 类 @


Hashtable numbers = new Hashtable();
numbers.put("One", new Integer(1));
numbers.put("Two", new Integer(2));

Integer n = (Integer) numbers.get("One");
if( n != null ) {

Object.hashCodeObject.equals 是 HashMap,HashSet 中最重要的依赖。

Perperties 是在 Hashtable 基础上加了序列化功能。Tiger 还可以序列化到 XML。

import java.util.*;
import java.io.*;

public class LoadSample {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        Properties prop = new Properties();
        FileIniputStream fis = new FileInputStream("sample.properties");
        System.out.println("\nThe foo property: " + prop.getProperty("foo"));


System @

in, out, err

gc(), exit(), getenv(), getProperties(), arraycopy(), currentTimeMillis();

Date, Calendar, DateFormat, Math, Random,

IO ♥️ @
File @

File 类,表示一个文件或者目录(也是文件)。

  • File( String parent, String child )
  • File( File parent, String child )
  • File( URI uri )
  • File( String pathname )
File file = new File("file");
if (!file.exists()) {
  • java.io.File.pathSeparator: : (Linux), ; (Windows)
  • java.io.File.separator: / (Linux), \ (Windows)
  • canRead
  • canWrite
  • compareTo( rhs ): 0-> 相同;比较路径名
  • createNewFile() throws IOException
  • delete
  • exists
  • File getAbsoluteFile():返回绝对路径
  • String getAbsolutePath():返回绝对路径
  • String getName (类似于 basename), getParent
  • isFile, isHidden
  • long lastModified(),和 Qt 的 QDateTime::msecsSinceEpoch() 一样。
  • length:文件大小;目录的话,没太大意义
  • String[] list():目录下 entrylist
  • String[] list( filter ):目录下 entrylist
  • File[] listFiles()
  • public static File[] listRoots():/bin/etc/tmp,等等
  • mkdir, mkdirs,后者类似于 mkdir -p Many/DIRS
  • renameTo( File dest )
  • setReadOnly()
import java.io.File;
import java.io.IOException;
public class FileDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        File file = new File("FileDemo.txt");
        try {
            System.out.println("Generated file " + file.getAbsolutePath());
        catch (IOException e) {
            System.out.println("Failed creating file " + file.getAbsolutePath());
InputStream @
  • int available(),还可以读取的字节数
  • void close()
  • int read(),读入一个字节(0~255),如果 -1,则是 EOF。
  • int read(byte[] b)
  • int read(byte[] b, offset, lengh)
  • reset()
  • skip( size )
File file = new File(...);
InputStream is = new InputStream(file);
byte buf[] = new byte[(int)file.length()];
System.out.println(new String(buf));

// 一个字节一个字节来
int temp;
while ((temp=is.read()) != -1) {
    buf[len++] = (byte)temp;

byte b[] = str.getBytes();






Random Access File @
StringBuilder builder = new StringBuilder(name);
this.name = builder.toString();

RandomAccessFile raf = new RandomAccessFile(file, "rw");
raf.seek( 0 );

Scanner scanner = new Scanner(System.in);
int num = scannr.nextInt();
Final 和 Immutable @

Final 变量

Final 是说变量不可以再变了。类似于 C++ 的 const,不过不要求定义的时候赋初始值。

外,或许类的 final 变量,不必加载类(loadClass)。

public class FinalDemo {
    final float PI = 3.14PI;
    final int arrInt[] = { 1, 2, 3, 4 };
    final int num;
        num = 5;                    // 在静态代码块里初始化,于是再不能被修改了
    final String str;
    public FinalDemo {
        str = "不能再改了";         // 在构造函数初始化,于是不能再修改了

final 的方法(最终方法):不允许被覆盖(可以重载一个参数不一样的,但是不能覆盖)

class Base {
    public final void add(int x, int y) {

final 的类:不可以被继承

final class Base {

不可变类(immutable class),比如 double,String(的包装类),讲的是对象的不可修改。有点类似于【值语义】的感觉。就是说:2 就是 2,2 不是一个变量。

内部类 @
class Outer {
    class Inner {
    public void fun() {
        Inner in = new Inner();
        class Inner2 {

Outer.Inner outin = new Outer().new Inner();    // Outer.Inner 是不是有种静态成员的感觉?

内部类是一个类,不能获取外部类的非静态常量(因为你根本没有那个 object 实例啊)。

断言 @
assert 3 < 5;
assert 3 > 5: "这当然是不对的。"

打开断言:java -ea SomeClass

泛型的意义 @


List lst = new ArrayList();
List<String> lst = new ArrayList<String>();
Map<String, Integer> map = new HashMap<String, Integer>();

// 可以自动推导,所以后面为空也是可以得
List<String> lst = new ArrayList<>();
Map<String, Integer> map = new HashMap<>();
public class Apple<T> {

public class A extends Apple<String> { }
public class A extends Apple { }

// 但这个就是错的
public class A extends Apple<T> { }

LinkedList<String>()LinkedList<Integer>() 具有同样的 getClass() 输出。

List<String> 不是 List<Object> 的子类。


void test(List<?> c) { // ? 是类型通配符。


static <T> void fromArrayToCollection(T[] a, Collection<T> c) {
    for (T o : a) {

// 下面代码中 T 代表 Object 类型
Object[] oa = new Object[100];
Collection<Object> co = new ArrayList<>();
fromArrayToCollection(oa, co);

// 下面代码中 T 代表 String 类型
String[] sa = new String[100];
Collection<String> cs = new ArrayList<>();
fromArrayToCollection(sa, cs);
// 声明一个泛型方法,该泛型方法中带一个 T 形参
static <T> void test(Collection<? extends T> from , Collection<T> to) {
    for (T ele : from) {
public static void main(String[] args)
    List<Object> ao = new ArrayList<>();
    List<String> as = new ArrayList<>();
    // 下面代码完全正常
    test(as , ao);
// 1
public interface Collection<E> {
    boolean containsAll(Collection<?> c);
    boolean addAll(Collection<? extends E> c);

// 2
public interface Collection<E> {
    <T> boolean containsAll(Collection<T> c);
    <T extends E> boolean addAll(Collection<> c);


放弃。不要用 Java,用 JavaScript(或者,TypeScript)。


打印输出的时候,还可以用 System.out.printf(),用法和 C++ 一样。


Vector, Set, Multiset, Map, HashMap, etc


int nums[] = new int[20];
int len = nums.length;
for (int n: nums) {
for (int i = 0; i < nums.length; ++i) {

Arrays.sort( ARR )
Arrays.copyOfRange( ARR, start, end )
Arrays.equals( ARR1, ARR2 )


InputStream / Reader

outputStream / Writer

系统调用,C++ 联动 & 序列化 & 网络通信

或许用 TCP 来通信是个不错的想法。还有 protbuf。

google/protobuf: Protocol Buffers - Google’s data interchange format

4ker/face2face: 基于netty的异步非阻塞实时聊天(IM)服务器。

Netty - 话题精华 - 知乎


H2 Database Engine

JDBC:Java Database Connectivity,Java 数据库连接,可以执行 SQL 的 API。

JDBC 常用类和接口:


实例代码 @
public class ConnMySql {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        // 1. 加载驱动,使用反射的知识,现在记住这么写。
                // 2. 使用 DriverManager 获取数据库连接,
                // 其中返回的 Connection 就代表了 Java 程序和数据库的连接
                // 不同数据库的 URL 写法需要查驱动文档知道,用户名、密码由 DBA 分配
                Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:mysql://", "root" , "32147");

                // 3. 使用 Connection 来创建一个 Statment 对象
                Statement stmt = conn.createStatement();

                // 4. 执行 SQL 语句
                //      Statement 有三种执行 sql 语句的方法:
                //      1:  execute 可执行任何 SQL 语句。- 返回一个 boolean 值,
                //          如果执行后第一个结果是 ResultSet,则返回 true,否则返回 false
                //      2:  executeQuery 执行 Select 语句 - 返回查询到的结果集
                //      3:  executeUpdate 用于执行 DML 语句。- 返回一个整数,
                //          代表被 SQL 语句影响的记录条数
                ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery("select s.* , teacher_name from student_table s , teacher_table t where t.teacher_id = s.java_teacher");

        ) {

            // ResultSet 有系列的 getXxx(列索引 | 列名),用于获取记录指针
            // 指向行、特定列的值,不断地使用 next() 将记录指针下移一行,
            // 如果移动之后记录指针依然指向有效行,则 next() 方法返回 true。
            while (rs.next()) {
                System.out.println(rs.getInt(1) + "\t" + rs.getString(2) + "\t" + rs.getString(3) + "\t" + rs.getString(4));

查询用 executeQuery,DML 和 DDL,用 executeUpdate()executeLargeUpdate()

和 ResultlSet 相比,RowSet 是可滚动、可更新、可序列化的结果集。而且便于网络传输。

事务具有 4 个特性:

Java 8 的批量更新:SupportsBatchUpdates()




Apache Log4j 2:一款全新的日志记录工具 - 资源 - 伯乐在线




Java annotations are typically used for the following purposes:

@Entity(tableName = "vehicles")                         // one annotation element
@Entity(tableName = "vehicles", primaryKey = "id")      // multiple annotation element
@InsertNew("yes")                                       // one annotation element


注解:注解本身 + java.lang.Annotation

5 个基本的 Annotation:


自定义 Annotation(可以用于程序、接口、类)

@interface MyAnnotation {

    String   value();

    String   name();
    int      age();
    String[] newNames();


This example defines an annotation called MyAnnotation which has four elements. Notice the @interface keyword. This signals to the Java compiler that this is a Java annotation definition.

    newNames={"Jenkov", "Peterson"}
public class MyClass {

Element Default Values

String   value() default "";

refs and see also

Java 8 的 Type Annotation


File tmp = File.createTempFile("tmp" , null);
FileOutputStream tmpOut = new FileOutputStream(tmp);

privaet transient int age;

除了 Serializable,还有 Externalizable 接口。后者自由度大,必须手工实现,效率更高。

还可以加上 ID:

serialver Person



提供的 channel 和 buffer。

channel 与 InputStream / OutputStream 的区别是提供 map(),可以处理“块” buffer 位于 channel 和数据之间。


0 <= mark <= position <= limit <= capacity

两个重要的函数是 flip() 和 clear()

Channel 不应该通过构造器创建,而是要通过传统的节点 InputStream、OutputStream 的 getChannel() 方法来返回对象的 Channel。

map() -> ByteBuffer read() write()


import java.nio.charset.Charset;
import java.util.SortedMap;

SortedMap<String, Charset> map = Charset.availableCharsets();
for (String alias : map.keySet()) {
    System.out.println(alias + " -----> " + map.get(alias));
java -jar main.jar -Dfile.encoding=utf-8


// hacks copied from StackOverflow: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/361975/setting-the-default-java-character-encoding
System.setProperty("file.encoding", "UTF-8");
Field charset = Charset.class.getDeclaredField("defaultCharset");
charset.set(null, null);



主线程 main(),子线程 run()

Thread.currentThread() 返回正在执行的线程。 thread.getName() 返回这个 thread 的名字。


调用 start() 还是 run()?直接用后者的话,只是一个函数。

static void Thread::sleep(miliseconds)


拷贝到内存,然后创建 java.lang.Class 对象。

Releases · MSOpenTech/redis

YouMeek Code @

How to create a .jar file or export jar on IntelliJ (like eclipse java archive export) - Stack Overflow

InputStream -> InputStreamReader -> BufferedReader


https://google.github.io/styleguide/javaguide.html 这里面是一些java编码规范 http://www.blogjava.net/zh-weir/archive/2014/02/08/409608.html这是中文版的

// read char
char c = (char)System.in.read();
// read line
BufferedReader in = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(System.in));
String line = in.readLine();

4ker/Java-WebSocket: A barebones WebSocket client and server implementation written in 100% Java.

4ker/async-http-client: Asynchronous Http and WebSocket Client library for Java

judasn/Basic-Single-Module-SSM: 为了方便以后的一些问题的讲解特地准备一个最精简的 SpringMVC+Spring+Mybatis 框架整合,方便以后的一些问题的演示

4ker/jax-rs2-guide-II: 《Java Restful Web Service实战 第二版》源代码

War: java enterprise: web archive (WAR) file layout

应用程序描述语言 (Web Application Description Language);应用描述语言;伍斯特应用开发实验室

快速使用 netty 轻松打造一个 websocket 服务

4ker/netty-websocket: a fully-functioning websocket server built on netty.

4ker/netty-restful-server: A light restful server built on netty. If you are preparing for leaning java or netty, it’s a nice gift for you. @
4ker/angular-rest-springsecurity: An example AngularJS Application that uses a Spring Security protected Jersey REST backend based on Hibernate/JPA @


UserResource.java @
public class UserResource {

    private static Map<Integer,UserBean> userMap  = new HashMap<Integer,UserBean>();
     * 增加
     * @param user
    public List<UserBean> createUser(UserBean user)
        userMap.put(user.getUserId(), user );
        return getAllUsers();

     * 删除
     * @param id
    public List<UserBean> deleteUser(@PathParam("id")int id){
        return getAllUsers();

     * 修改
     * @param user
    public List<UserBean> updateUser(UserBean user){
        userMap.put(user.getUserId(), user );
        return getAllUsers();

     * 根据id查询
     * @param id
     * @return
    public UserBean getUserById(@PathParam("id") int id){
        UserBean u = userMap.get(id);
        return u;

     * 查询所有
     * @return
    public List<UserBean> getAllUsers(){
        List<UserBean> users = new ArrayList<UserBean>();
        users.addAll( userMap.values() );
        return users;
注解 @
@QueryParam("age") int age @


public MyBean putPojo(@QueryParam("age") int age,
        @QueryParam("name") String name) {
    MyBean pojo = new MyBean();
    return pojo;
@DefaultValue @
public MyBean postPojoDefault(@DefaultValue("21") @QueryParam("age") int age,
        @DefaultValue("www.waylau.com")@QueryParam("name") String name) {
    MyBean pojo = new MyBean();
    return pojo;
@FormParam @

要求所请求 MIME 媒体类型为 application/x-www-form-urlencoded,并且符合指定的 HTML 编码的形式,此参数提取对于 HTML 表单 POST 请求是非常有用的。比如,我们要处理一个登陆表单,处理如下:

public Response login(@FormParam("username") String username,
        @FormParam("password") String password) {
    return null;
  • 添加 jersey-media-multipart 到 pom.xml
  • 并在 RestApplication 里面注册 MultiPart

    public class RestApplication extends ResourceConfig {
        public RestApplication() {
            //注册 MultiPart
  • file upload

    public Response uploadFile(
            @FormDataParam("file") InputStream fileInputStream,
            @FormDataParam("file") FormDataContentDisposition contentDispositionHeader)
                throws IOException {
        String fileName = contentDispositionHeader.getFileName();
        File file = new File(serverLocation + fileName);
        File parent = file.getParentFile();
        OutputStream outpuStream = new FileOutputStream(file);
        int read = 0;
        byte[] bytes = new byte[1024];
        while ((read = fileInputStream.read(bytes)) != -1) {
            outpuStream.write(bytes, 0, read);
        return Response.status(Response.Status.OK)
                .entity("Upload Success!").build();
    <form action="webapi/files/upload" method="post" enctype="multipart/form-data">
        Select a file : <input type="file" name="file" size="50" />
       <input type="submit" value="Upload It" />

用一个普通的 RESTful 服务器即可!!!只要支持 CURD。

RESTful Api 身份认证中的安全性设计探讨

[POST]     http://mengkang.net/users   // 新增
[GET]      http://mengkang.net/users/1 // 查询
[PATCH]    http://mengkang.net/users/1 // 更新
[PUT]      http://mengkang.net/users/1 // 覆盖,全部更新
[DELETE]   http://mengkang.net/users/1 // 删除

深入理解 RESTful Api 架构


xetorthio/jedis: A blazingly small and sane redis java client

Log4j has three main components: loggers, appenders and layouts. These three types of components work together to enable developers to log messages according to message type and level, and to control at runtime how these messages are formatted and where they are reported.

Apache log4j 1.2 - Short introduction to log4j

Troubleshooting log4j

Java development 2.0: Big data analysis with Hadoop MapReduce

Java API for JSON Processing

pac4j: the security engine for Java pac4j: the security engine for Java pac4j: the security engine for Java

Maven Repository: log4j » log4j » 1.2.17

SAML 2.0 - Wikipedia

RESTful API Server @

Plain Old Java Object


Java API for RESTful Services (JAX-RS)

JavaBeans @

JavaBeans are classes that encapsulate many objects into a single object (the bean). They are serializable, have a zero-argument constructor, and allow access to properties using getter and setter methods. The name “Bean” was given to encompass this standard, which aims to create reusable software components for Java.

A JavaBean is a POJO that is serializable, has a no-argument constructor, and allows access to properties using getter and setter methods that follow a simple naming convention.

Specialized Java Object" (SJO or (sic) SoJO).

Developing RESTful Web services that seamlessly support exposing your data in a variety of representation media types and abstract away the low-level details of the client-server communication is not an easy task without a good toolkit. In order to simplify development of RESTful Web services and their clients in Java, a standard and portable JAX-RS API has been designed. Jersey RESTful Web Services framework is open source, production quality, framework for developing RESTful Web Services in Java that provides support for JAX-RS APIs and serves as a JAX-RS (JSR 311 & JSR 339) Reference Implementation.

Jersey framework is more than the JAX-RS Reference Implementation. Jersey provides it’s own API that extend the JAX-RS toolkit with additional features and utilities to further simplify RESTful service and client development. Jersey also exposes numerous extension SPIs so that developers may extend Jersey to best suit their needs.

Goals of Jersey project can be summarized in the following points:

  • Track the JAX-RS API and provide regular releases of production quality Reference Implementations that ships with GlassFish;
  • Provide APIs to extend Jersey & Build a community of users and developers; and finally
  • Make it easy to build RESTful Web services utilising Java and the Java Virtual Machine.
Chapter 1. Getting Started @

新建一个文件见,把这一行复制到 CMD,运行:

mvn archetype:generate -DarchetypeArtifactId=jersey-quickstart-grizzly2 -DarchetypeGroupId=org.glassfish.jersey.archetypes -DinteractiveMode=false -DgroupId=com.example -DartifactId=simple-service -Dpackage=com.example -DarchetypeVersion=2.24

然后用 IntelliJ IDEA 打开 pom 文件,对着 Main.java 右键运行(或者用 mvn exec:java)。


  • http://localhost:8080/myapp/myresource

    收到“Got it!”。

  • http://localhost:8080/myapp/application.wadl

    WADL 是应用程序描述语言 (Web Application Description Language)。

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?>
    <application xmlns="http://wadl.dev.java.net/2009/02">
        <doc xmlns:jersey="http://jersey.java.net/" jersey:generatedBy="Jersey: 2.24 2016-10-27 14:35:27"/>
        <doc xmlns:jersey="http://jersey.java.net/" jersey:hint="This is simplified WADL with user and core resources only. To get full WADL with extended resources use the query parameter detail. Link: http://localhost:8080/myapp/application.wadl?detail=true"/>
        <resources base="http://localhost:8080/myapp/">
            <resource path="myresource">
                <method id="getIt" name="GET">
                        <representation mediaType="text/plain"/>

然后可以运行一下测试(IJ 里面右键,或者 mvn clean test)。发现可以通过。


public class Main {
    public static final String BASE_URI = "http://localhost:8080/myapp/";
    public static HttpServer startServer() {
        final ResourceConfig rc = new ResourceConfig().packages("com.example");         // ???
        return GrizzlyHttpServerFactory.createHttpServer(URI.create(BASE_URI), rc);

    public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
        final HttpServer server = startServer();

这个 ??? 其实是在 MyResource 类里面解决的:(只要 “com.example” package 里面的类,都可以成为路由):

public class MyResource {   // 类的名称和上面的路由地址,当然是无需匹配的。
    public String getIt() { return "Got it!"; }

这个页面下还有生成一个可以导出 war 的工程,可以 deploy 到 Heroku 的工程。

refs and see also

4ker/jersey: This is an active mirror of Jersey 3.x workspace from http://jersey.java.net. Any changes made here are automatically propagated to java.net and vice versa. Forks and pull requests are welcome!

实习工作 @
  • 做一个 creator,展示除技术之外更多的闪光点;
  • 判断 WAP 是否适合自己;
  • 五天之内一个 open 的课题;
  • 需求分析,编写文档之前-文档作业(客户需求分析 -> 填写文档 -> skype 面聊 review);
  • day 2,review;
  • day 3,实现;
  • day 4/5,产品演示;
  • day 5 公布结果;
  • day 4 晚上,VP 演讲;


  • Nov. 6,first submission
  • Nov. 8-9,get feedback from engineer (via skype)
  • Nov. 11,intern starts
  • Nov. 11-15, intern
  • Nov. 15, result
Could you explain more about the Document Task? @

Please read ‘Cover Letter’, ‘Release Note’ and ‘What Is’ carefully.

Remember, you are in charge of the whole process of creating a software, which also includes Needs Analysis for Client.

You can decide what kind of supermarket company is your target client E.g. WAP’s main users are large companies.

Will WAP give us some frameworks or platforms? @

There is no constraint about frameworks, and also you can use any kind of language to implement your product.

Will WAP provide laptop PC during Internship? @

Normaly you should bring your own laptop. If you have request, please let us know.

If you use macintosh, please bring adapter by yourself.

e.g. http://www.apple.com/cn/shop/product/MC704FE/A/apple-usb-ethernet-adapter

要在 6 号晚上之前,提交如下文档 @
  • (首先,都要导出 PDF 格式的文档)
  • FamilyNameGivenName_ReleaseNote_sample_20161031.docx
    • Function No, Function name, Priority, Target user, How to use, User benefit
  • FamilyNameGivenName_WhatIs_sample_20161031.docx
    • product name
    • about the product
    • killer features
Task @
  • Application which supports the supermarket’s manager
  • increase profit
  • target 公司: big supermarket companies, like wal-mart,它们的客户也是很多的
  • target 使用者:连锁超市的 manager(主要),以及员工。每种角色的 tasks 应当有不同的权值(哪种优先开发?)
  • What kind of daily work does your product control? When your product will be used? Whatever as you like. Define your product by yourself.
  • 给 manager:分析系统和报表
  • 给 manager:和当地的特色和需求结合起来,给经理提供资讯
  • 给系统:分析商品的相关性,客户的消费特色,提高推荐的成功 hit 率
  • 给系统:物联网,统计商品
  • 给店员:…
Notes @

How Wal-Mart Works | HowStuffWorks

Wal-Mart Strategy

  • universal bar code -> radio frequency identification technology (RFID).
  • The frugal culture
  • Store managers often work more than 70 hours per week.
  • The central goal of Wal-Mart is to keep retail prices low – and the company has been very successful at this.
RFID Tag Maximum Read Distance

理论上有 5m 的有效距离,但实际上 1 m 就够呛。现实中,大概只有 30 cm……

What does a Supermarket Manager do? (with pictures)

监管员工和 operations,管理财务,订货,安全检查,etc。

A supermarket manager may assume many different duties, such as supervising employees and store operations, taking inventory and ordering products, performing administrative and human resources work, or engaging in safety inspections and loss prevention. Most managers are very skilled at organizing merchandise, communicating with employees, and providing excellent customer service.

A supermarket manager in a large store might be in charge of supervising a specific department, such as produce or housewares. A manager typically monitors the inventory and appearance of his or her department. He or she usually determines the prices on items, directs employees in stocking shelves, and orders new products when quantities are low. A manager may design store displays and actively engage with customers to inform them of deals and help them find products. Supermarket delis and bakeries are commonly managed by professionals with experience in food service and safety.

Human resources managers might be in charge of hiring and training new employees, facilitating accounts receivable and payable, managing payroll, or handling employee concerns. A store may staff several people to fulfill human resources needs and an executive supermarket manager to oversee the entire the department. Human resources managers often address the questions and concerns of employees and bring them to the attention of executive management when necessary. They commonly assess the overall quality of the store and its workers, and suggest ways to improve operations when necessary.

Loss prevention and occupational health managers ensure the safety of employees, customers, store property, and merchandise. They may inspect the supermarket floor, stockrooms, and offices to make sure that health and safety guidelines are being followed at all times. Loss prevention managers protect against theft, vandalism, and fraud by monitoring security cameras and walking around the store. They often make detailed reports about safety infractions or incidents of theft, and communicate with the proper authorities about a corrective plan of action.

To become a supermarket manager, a person must typically have at least a high school diploma and extensive supervisory experience in retail or customer service. Some positions, such as those found in human resources, often require candidates to hold college degrees in business management or accounting. There is generally ample room for advancement for experienced managers, as store owners usually prefer to promote existing employees to higher positions rather than bring in outside personnel.

Oasis11-A supermarket manager salary is dependent on the volume of the store. The busier the store the higher the salary and bonus potential.

Many store managers of high volume grocery stores earn six figure salaries. Being a supermarket store manager is not easy because they tend to work long hours often in excess of fifty-five hours.

For example, when a manager is scheduled to close they usually work from 7:00 AM to 11:00 PM. Most managers work this schedule at least twice to three times a week.

A supermarket manager job description is not glamorous, but it does allow hard working people an opportunity to earn a good salary.

If you are interested in supermarket manager jobs, it is best to spend time working for a supermarket. These jobs exclude retail sales and really allow you to see how a supermarket functions from the inside.

For example, Publix Supermarkets requires its potential managers to work every grocery stock department in order to go into to store management.

The reason for this is that they need for the manager to have experience ordering from the entire aisle and be familiar with the vendors as well in order to help the stock personnel with their ordering especially during promotional sales.

Hourly Retail Jobs @


  • Cashiers, Customer Service Desk, Cart Pushers
  • Unloaders, Stockers
7- Eleven Application - (APPLY ONLINE) @

General Store Manager – The General Manager oversees daily store operations, supervises employees and manages inventory. Other duties include, but are not limited to, ensuring sufficient staffing levels are met, developing successful sales plans, recruiting, training, developing, and motivating all employees, and implementing new product lines.

If somebody comes in and buys a soda, what would you suggest to them to go with their drink?

This question is asked to determine if you have the know-how and charisma to upsell other items. When you suggestively sell add-ons, you are increasing the profitability of the company. If done well, you will be able to also show the hiring manager what you can do for the company.

Marketing and Sales Manager Job Description Sample | Monster.com

Accomplishes business development activities by researching and developing marketing opportunities and plans; implementing sales plans; managing staff.

超市夜未眠 (豆瓣)

Files @


CUSTOMER_MST.csv (#line: 351) @
customer_id,        name,               gender,     tel
1,                  Ada Abbe,           Female,     000-0000-0001
2,                  Adah Abbett,        Female,     000-0000-0002
3,                  Addyson Abbey,      Female,     000-0000-0003
PRODUCT_MST.csv (#line: 799) @
product_mst_id,     product_type,       product_name,                               price,      price_unit
1,                  Diapers,            "Huggies Little Snugglers Diapers, Size 1", 37.49,      USD
REGION_MST.csv (all) @
region_id,      name,                           manager_id
1,              North America,                  1
2,              South America,                  18
3,              Caribbean,                      27
4,              Central America,                44
5,              Australia and New Zealand,      53
6,              Melanesia,                      70
7,              Micronesia,                     79
8,              Polynesia,                      96
9,              Eastern Europe,                 106
10,             Western Europe,                 115
11,             Northern Europe,                130
12,             Southern Europe,                139
13,             East Asia,                      156
14,             Southeast Asia,                 165
15,             South Asia,                     182
16,             West Asia,                      191
17,             East Africa,                    208
18,             Central Africa,                 217
19,             North Africa,                   231
20,             South Africa,                   240
21,             West Africa,                    323
STAFF_MST.csv (#line: 400) @
staff_id,           name,           gender,         rank,           position,       supermarket_id
1,                  Aaron Alkins,   Male,           officer,        region manager, 1
2,                  Abbott All,     Male,           expert,         manager,        1
3,                  Abel Allam,     Male,           expert,         staff,          1
4,                  Abner Allan,    Male,           senior,         staff,          1


  • assistant
  • expert
  • manager
  • officer
  • region manager
  • senior
  • staff
supermarket_id,     address,        tel
1,"7025 Franklin Avenue, Hollywood, Los Angeles, CA 90028 (Central L.A)",1 323-851-0800
2,"701 Stone Canyon Rd., Los Angeles, CA 90077 (Westside)",1 310-472-1211
3,"8435 Beverly Blvd, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (Central L.A)",866-203-2212
4,"285 Lucas Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90026 (Downtown)",213-481-8181
5,"3515 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90010 (Formerly The Wilshire Supermarket Los Angeles) (Central L.A)",213-381-7411
6,"11461 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90049 (Westside)",310-476-6571
7,"1697 Pacific Avenue, Venice Beach, Los Angeles, CA 90291 (Westside)",310-452-1111
8,"20 E. 76th Street, New York City, NY 10021",212-288-3700
9,"Madison Avenue at 77th Street, 25 East 77th Street, New York City, NY 10078 (Manhattan)",866-744-4300
10,"101 West 57th Street, at 6th Avenue, New York City, NY 10019 (Manhattan)",212-245-7846
11,"299 Madison Ave., at 41st St., Entrance on 41st Street, New York City, NY 10017 (Manhattan)",212-983-4500
12,"60 E. 54th St., New York City, NY 10022 (Manhattan)",212-753-1066
13,"233 West 49th Street, New York City, NY 10019 (Manhattan)",800-801-3457
14,"431 Broome Street, New York City, NY 10013 (Manhattan)",212-431-2929
15,"342 West 40th Street, New York City, NY 10018 (Manhattan)",212-706-6100
16,"30 Kenmare Street, New York City, NY 10012 (Manhattan)",212-925-2555
17,"215 E 64th Street, New York City, NY 10021 (Formerly Lyden Gardens) (Manhattan)",212-355-1230
18,"567 Hornby St, Vancouver, British Columbia V6C 2E8, Canada (Downtown)",877-632-3030
19,"322 Davie Street, Vancouver, British Columbia V6B 5Z6, Canada (Downtown)",866-642-6787
20,"20 East Delaware Place, Chicago, IL 60611 (Gold Coast)",+1 312-825-2688
21,"21 E. Bellevue Place, Chicago, IL 60611 (Gold Coast) ",+1 312-266-2100
Interview @

Atart Time:20161109 (Wed) 12:30

My name is Zhixiong Tang, you can call me Peter. I’m from Wuhan University majoring in Geomatics Engineering. I’m interested in Computer Vision and Machine Learning, and my research is in this domain. In my leisure time, I enjoy music. My favorite singers are Sakai Izumi (ZARD) and Sia Furler (and Ohguro Maki). My motto is a sentense by Albert Einstein, “Try not to become a man of success, but rather try to become a man of value”.

I hope to work with Enthusastic people.

Tips for the sales manager.

Sending a message, telling that the beer will be a big sale, so

increase big sale

Review will last 30 minutes. / 2 minutes self-introduction (both you and engineer) / 15 minutes products introduction by you ※You should act as a software ventor try to sell your production to client, explain your merit, function, feature, unique elements, etc.) / 10-13 minutes feedback from our engineer ※They will act as your client, ask you some questions but will not give you specific advice.


手把手教你实现一个网页聊天室 | Acheron’s Blog

Day 2, Review @

You want to make more profits, as we do.

A supermarket makes profits by selling stuffs. The more sales, the more profits. Our product SuperMarKit can help you make more profits.

Thinking of profits, you may want to make the buyers buy more, items. Lower the price, increase the sales, so to get higher profits, in total. But that is not sustanable. The marginal gain is LOW! That’s why you need our product.

Our product, SuperMarKit is a productivity kit for sales manager who works in supermarket crossing the country. Its goal is to increase your work efficiency and, making you more profits, exactly what you want.

And the first thing it does is to bring you more members.

Because the key and the only key to more profits for a supermarket, is a big number of members. Think about that, when your potential customers don’t have a supermarket membership card and he wants to do some shopping stuffs, what would they do? There are three supermarkets nearby including yours. I can bet you that, the typical lazy people won’t choose your supermarket just because your store has a slightly better service, a slightly lower price and maybe you have slightly more frequent discount events.

They choose the near one! And you are not always the lucky neareast shop.

But don’t cry. We have a chance to win. That’s called membership mechanism. Because, consider this, if these lazy guys have got a VIP card, of your shop. What would they do now? They will walk extra hundreds of meters directly to your store, to shop. Even thought your service is not the most considerate, your price is not the lowest, and your products are not the best. The membership mechanism is the key to higher profits.

Our product, SuperMarKit, can help you build a large group of members. That’s the first thing and the most important thing our product offers you. I won’t tell you how we achive this right now. I’ll save that for later.

We are beyond that. Our product is a kit, which actually contains three parts: Membership Management System, Market Basket Analysis System and Document Plantform.

Market Basket Analysis System, or MBA System is a transaction analysis system, which can help you in decision making. It’s like your Excel + your secretary, but it’s beyond that.

The benefits of using our MBA System against Excel, is a save of hours of routine work. Cause you can easily build your customized dataflow, then apply it again and again. That saves your time. And also, it’s analysing capability is second to none. If you try it now, you’ll understand what I’m saying.

The third part, document platform mainly aims at strengthing cooperation of your team by making your workflow more fluent, your communication more effective. It makes you easier to manage your staffs, so you will not lose your customers.

The first one, as I told you before, the most important thing, the key, the only key, is the Membership Management System. It makes your customber your member. When you have a big members community, yours sales will boost. Because they know: “When in doubt, go to your shop!”

This subsystem can also help you organize these members, bind your connections and encourage them to buy stuffs in your shop.

So that’s our product, SuperMarKit. The Membership management System is for utilizing your members, the MBA System, is for yourself, the Document Platform, is for managing your staffs.

If your are curious, I can tell you how our product help you get your members. If not, do you have any questions about our product?

Actually, we offer you a better approach to adopt when suggesting your customers to get on board. It won’t bother them, because your casher, your sales staff need never to repeatly saying “would you want a membership card?”

That’s anoying.

PO,VO,DTO,DAO,BO,POJO 分别是什么? - David 的日志 - 网易博客

4ker/angular-rest-springsecurity: An example AngularJS Application that uses a Spring Security protected Jersey REST backend based on Hibernate/JPA

web.xml 很重要!




Cookbook: jsoup Java HTML parser


A field is a variable that belongs to a class or an object. It is a piece of data, in other words. For instance, a Car class could define the field brand which all Car objects would have. Each Car object could then have a different value for the brand field.

Math.abs(int/long/float/double) Math.ceil() Math.floor()


double result3 = Math.floorDiv(-100,9); // -12.0
double result4 = -100 / 9;              // -11.0

Math.min() Math.max() Math.random() Math.exp(x) // e^x Math.log(x) // log_e(x) Math.log10() Math.pow(x,y) // x^y Math.sqrt()

Math.PI Math.sin(x) // x is in radians Math.cos(x) Math.tan(x) Math.asin(x) Math.acos(x) Math.atan(x)

Math.atan2() Math.sinh() Math.cosh() Math.tanh()

Math.toDegrees() // rad -> deg Math.toRadians()

Java NIO Tutorial

Java Lambda Expressions

Java Concurrency / Multithreading Tutorial

Dependency Injection

如何用最简单的方式解释依赖注入?依赖注入是如何实现解耦的? - 知乎

用javascript代码通俗的解释一下什么叫依赖注入? - 知乎

很多有名字的 “设计模式” 都是在特定问题下正常人稍稍动动脑子就能想到的方案,所以不要纠结这种意义不大的东西了,多码才是硬道理。依赖注入看起来高大上,实际上…妹的这种再自然不过的东西都需要单独取个名字?

yasserg/crawler4j: Open Source Web Crawler for Java

Option to specify DefaultCookieStore · Issue #77 · yasserg/crawler4j

code4craft/webmagic: A scalable web crawler framework for Java.


buildscript {
    repositories {
        maven{ url 'http://maven.aliyun.com/nexus/content/groups/public/'}

allprojects {
    repositories {
        maven{ url 'http://maven.aliyun.com/nexus/content/groups/public/'}

private final static String TAG = “MainActivity”; Lod.v(TAG, msg), verbose Lod.d(TAG, msg), debug Lod.i(TAG, msg), info Lod.w(TAG, msg), warning Lod.e(TAG, msg), error

logcat 去看 log。

在 Text 标签下可以用: android:id=“@+id/textView” 修改(添加)id。

或者在 Design 界面修改。

/hellworld/app/src/main/res/values/strings.xml hellworld Thats My Name

然后用 R.string.myname 引用这个字符串。(readonly)

setContentView(R.layout.activity_main); // 设置 activity 的主要内容 view.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {…}); Toast.makeText(MainActivity.this, R.string.oktoast, Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();


// getApplicationContext()